Wednesday, March 13, 2019
Human Motivation Essay
On scalawag 227 of your text you leave behind find Figure 8-6. suffer devil scenarios for twain different hypothetical citizenry showing the cardinal executable bug outcomes, two possible paths for the aforesaid(prenominal) frustrated contain. Summarize the two, comparing and contrasting the experiences in the scenarios. Create a box table for each with summaries for each. Then, provide, in carve up format, an explicit explanation of similarities and differences. Each table should redeem back two explanations on with descriptions and references to your text and/or oppositewise readings. Cite solely references pursual worsen APA zeal (5th edition). In pardoning the conduct of pack, we start our description with reference to around kind of playive driving force oblige the psyche think inks, the individual wants, the individual tendings. Various psychologists describe motif, in other words, as the driving force behind our sort (Atkinson, et al. 1983). S mith, et al. labels their discussion on penury as the why of behavior (1982). Why does the tardy student in mathematics slide by the rest of the period outside instead of inside the mathematics classroom? Emotions or strong feelings usually accompany motivated behavior. Often, emotions direct behavior toward goals (Atkinson, et al. 1983). This paper briefly describes and formulates the origin/ca maps, and distinction of pauperism and different scenarios linking motivation and other concepts. Motives, according to Marx, originate either from a biological or a physiological source, or from an environmental bring. A motive whitethorn arise from a biological need for food or pissing which exit drive an individual to seek food when hungry or drink when thirsty. The tissues of the tender- flavoured body need these to function continuously. It give kibosh to live without sufficient nourishment. The hormonal sub bearings in the blood which activate sealed split of the nervous sy stem argon other biological sources, for instance, the fetch up drive which is due to the presence of hormones secreted by the reproductive glands, the ovaries (in the female), and the testes present in the male (1976). Moreover, motives whitethorn overly be ca employ by environmental influence. We act strongly to social acceptance so we want to dumbfound an whatchamacallum or any other thing that we see in others especially if we nookie afford them. Companies offering high salaries attract employees from other firms that retain low wages (Atkinson, et al. 1983). A predominant view is that tender motivation comes from either a small number of basic urges or pull down one basic urge and that all aspire for family prestige, social status, and bail (Morris and Maisto, 1999, p. 315). intragroup and External Classification of Motivation Psychology recognizes different perspectives of motivation. unrivalled of these view mentions pertains to the idea of motivational set abou tments, otherwise known as inducings. Incentives ar compose from either the vantage point of internal, or that of extraneous motivation. An inducement plan of attack from within the individual is called intrinsic or internal motivation. It is, according to Morris and Maisto, near the . . . desire to perform a behavior that originates within the individual. An inducement climax from outside the individual is called external or extrinsic motivation. It is the aspiration to do or achieve a goal in order to acquire a type of incentives or escape or steer get through of punishment (Morris and Maisto, 1999, p.316).Children are often induced by the presence of external incentives to perform expected tasks or avoid incurring punishment. For motivation experts, however, a person develo wooden legg the internal type of motivation lead sop up to a greater extent than long-lived and beneficial effects compared with external motivation (1999). To induce a electric shaver to do what the parents ask for by elbow room of rewards or scourges are at cartridge clips less constructive or withal detrimental to the overall performance of the person or child.Fear is a strong component of human motivation. Explain the numerous roles of care in both positive and negative impact mail services on human motivation you have studied this term. Be precise and cite all references in correct APA style (5th edition). Create real-sprightliness examples for each role of idolize to make your position(s). Develop your scenarios to include the application of system. Thoroughly develop your scenario. Fear is defined as a distressing emotion aroused by impend end fussinessment, evil or pain a specific instance of or propensity for fear concern or anxiety, solicitude (Random House Websters Dictionary, 4th Ed.). Where fear is concerned, though it is deemed as a negative aroused state by numerous, life leave alone become unreal. This paper give try to explain why fear is e ssential to an individuals healthy outlook. Weighing on the polarities of this servingicular affect, one will see the necessity of this kind of emotion which is biddinged by the bodys amygdala.Although social psychology literature is extensive, in that respect are yet erroneous evidences as to how fear really die towards its positive effect. Volumes of literature testify to both positive and negative effects of fear especially in its role to convince. Because of this, it is very important that one examines the specific instances where fear crapper be verbalise to be effective in positive style as intumesce up as in a negative way. The following scenarios will, at the least, illustrate where fear is helpful, and where it is detrimental or destructive. In the teaching of anti-nuclear recruiting to raise concern on a possible nuclear holocaust, it is utter that the matter about nuclear use is so prevalent these geezerhood that common battalion, when presented with the t hreat of its use, tend to shrug off the idea and need to be convinced of the danger it poses (Sandman & Valenti, 1986). Why the indifference? Inspite of the campaigns of nuclear Armageddon, the volume of people still seemed to be apathetic about any threat at all. Perhaps, according to studies, people already get beyond fear to numbness. In the workplace by Sandman and Valenti, the authors said that this has more or lessthing to do with what they termed as credibly accompaniment versus horrible consequence.They cited as an example the success of drunken driving campaigns due to the likelihood of losing ones drivers evidence rather than losing a life (which is an instance of horrible consequence). How is this so? These authors said that to terrify a person who is already afraid will be of no use to that person. The likelihood of a horrible consequence, probably to virtually people, is non that immediate. The common response is apathy. So the best approach to this situation ac cording to Sandman and Valenti is reassurance-the reinforcement of what they call the four antidotes namely, anger, hope, love and exercise.This implies simply that fear in this instance is negative in effect. Fear has to be rock-bottom when it comes to scenarios like recruiting people to take up commitment and/or protagonism towards certain important matters of concern like the threat of nuclear war. To bear the cause, the four aforementioned agenda will be the in all prob force go taken rather than inducing fear or threatizing the terrorized with more terror (Sandman & Valenti, 1986). It is also maintained that fear is indispensable and a fact of life. If legality be told, more often, studies would show its efficacy in persuading people to action or to some to change their minds on something or someone. This happens to political campaigns where some PR managers become household names also due to their top executive to introduce a virtually unknown person and catapult them t o nonoriety. This may entail a positive or negative implication, depending on the perceptions of people and the motives or machinations of those wanting to be in the lime luminance. How will fear stir be very effective and its use in persuasive communion be ethically and morally justifiedly or fair(a)ified? hither is a scenario a certain school whose graduating class of 29 students filed a complaint on one of its faculty, citing misconduct unbecoming of someone in authority on the basis of corruption.They submitted a detailed account of what transpired during a semester with this certain professor in their subdivision. When confronted with the dean regarding the response made by the professor, and the possibility of court cases filed against the whole class, the students decided to make a leaveion of their complaints. Their lame excuse was that given their navet or inexperience, the college and the government (including the accused professor) because investigating them, s hould look into the charges they made against the professor as mere questions in need of answers and not as accusatory gestures that are morally and professionally damaging to the concerned professor. They have decided to retract, corporately, because their consultant enlightened them of the repercussions of their written complaint (i.e., possible non- showtime, and a host of other possible consequences).This is a picture of an effective fear appeal. Their retraction did not mean they have changed their prejudiced mind against the professor, rather, their immediate concern is their graduation which is barely two months away, and the possibility of a smeared reputation when time comes they will be applying for work. This illustration gives an example of the kind of fear appeal where the symbolise regulate (Das, 2001) is applied. The students in the illustration responded to this appeal positively, although it was only short term. They responded positively because they had their gr aduation in mind which is upcoming. As Enny Das states it, human beings act the way they do because of underlying motivations (Das, 2001). Fear is an important factor in the way people act and decide. In the low scenario, fear is represent as negative in effect to certain cases such as anti nuclear campaigns recruitment. According to social scientists, there are behavioral and attitudinal changes that work temporarily and others permanently or in a tidy length of time. Where the first scenario is concerned, advocates for the awareness of anti-nuclear holocaust and recruitment of activists for their cause have this problem before them how to convince people from their numbness to action and confront on with it.As Sandman and Valenti proposed it, the procedures they advocated, instead of high dose of fear, a pricey measure of reassurance establish on anger, love, hope and action, (4 antidotes of numbness) should be followed (Sandman, Valenti, 1986). This makes sense according t o the Dual-process model, where it is postulated that systematic processing of a persuasive core will result in more stable attitudes, intentions, and behavior (Das, 2001). However, people should perceive a certain degree of possible threat/danger if they are to process the information systematically and hence, maintain a desire term coping of that threat/danger. The second scenario is best explained based on the Stage model of fear appeals. It assumes that individuals process the information on a heuristic processing of subsequently presented recommendation which is predictably less lasting in a period of time (Das, 2001). Considering that the second scenario, referring to their decision to retract from their complaints only because of an impending graduation which is threatened by the case they filed on the alleged professor, is actually a very unstable decision, and realiseably will only weaken in the passing of time (Das, 2001). The study of fear and its effects continue to a rrest curiosity and interest as well as confusion. There needs to be more studies to discover how the occurrence of attitude and behavioral changes where fear appeals are concerned, affects decision qualification whether positively, to the advantage of the individual, or negatively, to the detriment or disadvantages of the one paralyzed by fear. It is fabricated that scenarios like these will continue to attract both enthusiasts and experts alike in the study of behavior.Explain the role of learning in human motivation. Provide at least three (3) examples that specifically tie learning to human motivation and the reduction of stress, improved happiness, and self-esteem. (Three separate scenarios.) Your explanation should be well developed and the examples should be specific. Cite all references in correct APA style (5th edition). Motivation is behind every behavior. The principle of cause-effect is apparent in the study of motivation and behavior motivation is the cause or the w hy, and behavior is the effect. Thus it is motivation that gives direction and thrust to our behavior. Without motivation, behavior may not occur (Halonen and Santrock, 1999). A common family friend one day told me she valued my advice, whether shell break up with her boyfriend or stay on with him and gestate for him to change. Her problem was that whenever they disagree or excite, her boyfriend (well call him Raymond) ends up pinching her to the point that he was actually physically hurting her. It is something very interesting to echo about because of all things that a man would do to his sweetheart, pinching her seems strange and extraordinary. I couldnt help asking her why Raymond is that way. What are the forces behind this apparently love and hate relationship? What drives Raymond to do this precise act towards his young lady? Did he learn it or is it innate? Psychology seeks to understand human behavior with the following 4 or 5 goals in mind. These are description, exp lanation, prediction, control, and improvement (Atkinson et al, 2000). Analyzing the given scenario with my friend, I besides was able to describe the progeny and the occasions that led him to do it. However, it does not suffice to say that just because he is hurt in some ways by his female child that he would resort to doing such a thing as pinching. It would be a lot clearer if we start to examine his behavior in the light of possible reasons basing on the need theory and the learning theory (Halonen and Santrock, 1999).1. pack Theory A need is defined as a specific state within the organism that may activate behavior to take on the need they are often related to the depletion of essential body substances a state or condition which indicates the lack or something vital or desired which the organism will strive to obtain it can also mean the existence of an unpleasant condition, which has to be relieved or eliminated. In the case of Raymond, his pinching behavior can be inter preted as his way of relieving or eliminating an unpleasant feeling or condition (i.e. he has anger management problem that he couldnt guide his emotions to a more benign and less destructive manner), that unless he gets it off his system, a more violent reaction might occur, so the pinching is for him so minor, that he can do it anytime to his girlfriend. Usually, in cases like Raymonds behavior, the individual does not ingest the skills in channeling strong and powerful emotions and communicating such in the right manner.2. Learning Theory Observational or Social Learning To explain Raymonds behavior, I will start by elaborating on the theory by Bandura and alongside illustrating and illuminating the behavior of the pinching individual. Social learning theorizer Albert Bandura has run experiments that show we acquire operants by observing the behavior of others. We may need some practice to refine the skills we acquire by observation. We may choose to allow these skills to lie latent. For example, we may not imitate scrappy behavior unless we are provoked and believe that we are more likely to be rewarded than punished for it. Observational learning may account for closely human learning. It is not mechanically acquired through reinforcement. We can learn by observation without engaging in overt responses at all. It appears sufficient to pay attention to the behavior of others. To explain how this occurs, Bandura suggests that four mental processes must be in operation these processes are necessary for observation learning (Bandura, 1986). Attention. The reviewer must pay attention to what the model says or does.In all likelihood, Raymond may have spent his younger days in the pass and example of a mother who actually specifically would pinch him whenever he misbehaves. plausibly, those years were for him troublesome, knowing that a mother oftentimes displays this behavior or act out of sheer frustration, at times not because the child actually mis behaves. He was probably doing what every normal child would do that time. His mother could have been laden with so many things to do and lacked the assiduity or time to understand the needs of her children (Bandura, 1986). Memory. The observer must blood line or remember the information so that it can be retrieved and used later. In Raymonds case, because he practically grew up in the proscenium wall strings of his mother, its not surprising that he would manifest many characteristics of his mother. Raymonds memory would necessarily be traced back to the years he had experienced under her (Bandura, 1986). Imitation. The observer must be able to use the remembered information to guide his or her own actions and thus imitate the models behavior. Although Raymond has now a choice over his acts whenever he matte provoked, he seemed tied to the responses his mother made years ago, thus displaying the same behavior (Bandura, 1986). Motivation. The observer must have some reason, rein forcement, or incentive to perform the models behaviors. Raymond must probably feel that the pinching is excusable and sort of normal because that was what hed experienced with his mother. When he matte up being provoked by the girlfriend, the physical reaction could have been a natural consequence to him (Bandura, 1986). The major theories presented here have helped us understand the kind of behavior that the person in the scenario was doing towards the girl. Theories have their way of making us comprehend things, situations and behavior better. Because of this, we are able to make necessary adjustments, and lessen potential conflicts at the very least. It allows us also the chance to gain insights on the way people behave, what makes them tick, or what sets them off.A linchpin element in Human Motivation involves ones ability apply existing knowledge to a problem. We call this creativity. Your text actually provides a process of creativity. Your task is to Delineate a real-li fe problem associated with your work or something you have experienced. You must define this problem completely. Make yourself a disinterested observer and omit no detail. Synthesize the data. DeBono (1970, 1987) terms this process conclusion redundancies and calls it lateral thinking. You are going to identify patterns in your scenario. This is the heart of the yeasty process. Then, you will suspend judgment leave your opinions of the situation out of the process. Think of this as a game and devise at least three (3) options for your scenario. Last, explain how motivation is linked in each of the options. The real-life problem that is to be explored here has something to do with two colleagues who play serious parts or roles in the dynamics of smudge work. Their mutual animosity has exceeded politeness that it has engulfed us their co-workers, and even each of our respective families. Whenever they are around, all of us have to make sure that no favoritism is shown to any. Neve rtheless, it is precisely this stance that further places the rest of us in trouble. One of the antagonists, lets call him troy the Rat, is the senior of the rest of us who are in this segment. His archenemy, whom he name-calls as the trying- unsaid to look like tough guy, we call Bart. Bart is not your typical officemate also. He is not the very frank and gregarious, happy-go-lucky person nor the touchy type. But he knows malice if he meets one. Their problem is already more than ten years old. They have had their first series of encounters that ended up in lawsuit. Their relationship didnt improve, expectedly, afterwards that period. This time around, the matter between them was revived and had escalated with another series of lawsuits. I was caught in the middle of this conflict as much as the others in the department. troy weight the rat wanted us to take his side to pin Bart down saying that the latter was a malicious person bent on destroying a reputable colleague whose w ork and influence had made contributions though not as much as that of Troy. Bart, on the other hand, was knowledgeable about the manipulations and tongue wagging unimaginable in the forces that Troy had been doing all these years to put Bart outside the group, or the inner circle in the establishment where he had been first. In my judgment, though Bart had lapses of his own, I have not encountered nor observed him as a person who had as much malevolence as Troy. Both had wanted anyone of us in the department to sympathize and rally to either of their causes, and overtly, not one of us showed to the rest of the institution that we had taken sides. However, privately, we had our sympathies for Bart because his carrier bag is not that extensive as Troy Barts fight was just almost always to defend himself in the wake of the accusations that Troy had tried to hurl against him.Synthesize the data. DeBono (as cited in Franken, 2007) terms this process finding redundancies and calls it lateral thinking. You are going to identify patterns in your scenario. This is the heart of the creative process. The whole scenario with Troy, Bart and the rest of us in the department embroiled in the dispute reached its peak just a few months ago. Recently, Troy because of his belief that we were not deeply supportive of him, accused the whole department of conspiracy against him. Although he had the appearance of respectability, Troy however, is a very equitable actor, who plays his part well. Because his accusation of conspiracy was not effective, he tried other ways. Through text messages and sarcasm he began to intimidate each of us personally and privately. He somehow managed to know some important exposit or weaknesses in each of us to weaken us down. Members of our department were at our lowest point in the working relationship and morale within the workplace. It was a very difficult time. The problem with these two colleagues did not just start with any one of them as individuals although their idiosyncrasies and even their personal, family or private lives are sure enough crucial factors in the dynamics of office work. Looking at the whole dilemma from start to the more recent clashes, Troy and Barts conflict which now involved us, was firstly, a leadership responsibility. If thence, during the other(a) times that those who oversee the department had keen taste of peoples behavioral inclinations or types, who cared enough to address the early signs of trouble that arises in a specific workplace, and had the decisive facility to gossip certain boundaries and discipline either or both of them and those involved then, this was surely a thing of the past. What the person (Troy or Bart) was certainly has bearing in whatever will continue to develop in future relationships, responsibilities, and possible frictions that normally are present in any work setting.Then, you will suspend judgment leave your opinions of the situation out of the process. Think of this as a game and devise at least three (3) options for your scenario. theater both Troy and Bart. Impose sanctions for the way the conflict between them had been allowed to escalate. Probably suggest suspension, leave of absence for a definite period of time so the whole office can breathe.Because I am not the department head, a meeting is to occur (or a series of meetings) just for the sole purpose of brainstorming on the viable alternatives to restore the two to a more civil relationship. If they will not acquiesce to what will be decided by the group, then everyone in the department will make a resolution to recommend the two for further investigating by the institutions disciplinary council and even propose their expelling should they not accede to the department/institutions guidelines or decisions. break them to fight their battles between them because they are adults and can fend for each of themselves. Last, explain how motivation is linked in each of the opti ons.The implications for option one is that when there is outright or decisive action to make the two answerable for the fiasco will provide a sharp curb to their current hostility. In understanding human nature, when a persons ego is touched with matters that the case between Troy and Bart will be exposed as behaving like children and needed to be out rightly disciplined, it will unmask their vulnerability to societys approval and disapproval. This is based on Affiliation motive, and what they will lose is Esprit de corps-the feeling of being part of a sympathetic group, only this time, not just one of them will stand lose it, but the both of them (Morris & Maisto, 1999, p.318)This has something to do with Maslows power structure of needs. What will happen here is to make the threat of losing years of hard work and establishment of a career in one institution to end up in disgrace because then, the two should have been ignore for the trouble they brought to the whole department. In Maslows theory, if everything that mattered to any of them is pulled under them, then they will think deep with how they will have to make compromises in order that their source of livelihood (Maslows first level physiological needs) will be at stake. Secondly, when their sense of esteem is also threatened, then they will be pushed to think through with pulling down not only each other, but also the others in the workplace (Morris & Maisto, 1999, p.317)A sense of acceptance for many pervades whenever clashes between people who seemed to be influential, quite strong and resistive to advices, and who have made up their minds as to the stamping ground they were taking. It is to understand that people have what psychology calls as Aggression motive. some(a) experts on human behavior look at this particular indication or behavior as an inherent force within people that is intended to be redirected to more positive or beneficial outcomes (Morris & Maisto, 1999, p.319) conclusion Es sentially, the role of motivation in a persons life is crucial to the understanding of human activities. Motivation is never static because in life, there always presents a dynamic and changing pattern of needs. Internal and external motivation provides in brief, an astute way of explaining the whys of peoples behaviors. No wonder then, that in general, educators handle pupils or learners in the light of this ideation.BibliographyAtkinson, Rita L., Richard C. Atkinson, and Ernest R. Hilgard. 1983. Introduction to Psychology. 8th ed., New York Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.Das, Enny Henrica capital of Montana Johanna . 2001. 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