Wednesday, July 31, 2019
A review of literature on international HRM reveals three different approaches (Dowling et al. , 1999, p. 2): Comparative, Cross-cultural and multi-national. Firstly, according to Adler (1997), the early approaches to researching international HRM focused on cross-cultural differences and examination of human behaviour from an international perspective. Certainly, research on cross-cultural organizational behaviour has become a conduit for the understanding of the dynamics of multicultural domestic and international workplaces within the advent of globalisation. There are different levels of analysis within cross-national HRM, national factors, contingent factors and organisational level. Cross-national HRM researchers claim that it is at the levels of national factors and contigent variables that they can make useful contributions through the examination of the impacts of such determinants of HRM policies and practices (Boxall, 1995; Brewster et al, 1996). However, other researchers (Budhwar and Sparrow, 1997; Jackson and Schuler, 1995) argue that national factors and contingent variables are not enough in themselves to provide an understanding of the context-specific nature of HRM practices. It is important therefore, to consider analysis of the impact of organisational-level strategies (Budhwar and Sparrow, 1997). Secondly, the comparative approach focuses on similarities and differences in HRM practices within an international context. Undeniably, Budhwar & Sparrow (2002) note that the increase in globalisation of business transactions, the emergence of new markets such as the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) as well as hyper competition among organisations at equally the domestic and international level have been associated with an increased significance and need for comparative human resource management (HRM) studies. As a result, there has been a growing number of studies addressing the configuration of HRM in different national contexts (Budhwar & Sparrow, 2002). According to Rechie, Lee and Quintanilla (2009) one of the most significant role of comparative HRM research is to provide managers, principally those working in multinational firms, with specific guidelines concerning how to design and implement an effective HRM system taking into consideration cultural differences especially when their business operation enters into different cultural contexts for example western multinationals seeking to do business in China. This notion of being responsive to the context and standardisation of HRM policies and practices has generated controversial but nonetheless critical topics of discussion in comparative HRM, such as the debate on localization versus standardization, and the process of transferring HRM policies and practices across nations (Rechie et al, 2009). The thirdly, multinational approach, tends to focus on HRM practices in multinational organisations. The HRM extant literature reveals that there are two distinct schools of thought as regards approaches to managing people within MNCs: (i) convergence and (ii) divergence. According to Brewster et al. , (2007), the convergence approach is said to be one of the most dominant strands in international management research. On the one hand, the convergence approach has three main assumptions: firstly, the ultimate aim in all organisations is to improve performance through high-performance work systems (Brewster, 2001). Secondly, the universal aim of performance improvement can be achieved by using sound and effective management philosophies that hold true despite of differences among national environments (Girgin, 2005). Thirdly, proponents of the convergence approach argue that if local practices are different from these principles, they are expected to be replaced with Ã¢â¬Ëthe one best wayÃ¢â¬â¢, converging mainly on the American model as the leading industrial economy (Dowling et al. , 1999). According to Girgin (2005) the concept of convergence towards the one best way practice has been encouraged and/or supported by the forces of globalisation, which has led to the opening of world markets, deregulation, regional integration and improvements in communication technologies. Although HRM as a field of practice was developed in America, the principles and practices designed for America may not hold for other parts of the world. Barlett and Ghoshal (1989), say that, the main suggestion of the globalisation argument is that nationality factors in the operation of national systems and of companies are no longer influential or important as international companies become Ã¢â¬Ëtrans-nationalÃ¢â¬â¢ which converge to a new Ã¢â¬Ëbest modelÃ¢â¬â¢. Yes, the IHRM literature shows that because multinational corporations are embedded in their home institutional environments, they may attempt to transfer Ã¢â¬ËhomeÃ¢â¬â¢ practices to their foreign operations in different cultural environments (Edwards et al. , 1999). However, the study of HRM practices in Europe (see Brewster et al 2007) suggest that national differences are significant in the determination of HRM practices. On the other hand, the divergence approach or contextual paradigm searches for contextually unique practices and approaches to management, it does not search for evidence of similarities (Brewster, 2001). Within the IHRM literature, the focal point of the divergence standpoint is the dissimilarity of policies and applications across different national and regional contexts and tries to understand the particularities of the context with a view to interpret why and how such differences have emerged in these settings (Brewster, 2005). Within the divergence school of thought, there are two distinct approaches to managing human resources in multinational organisations: (i) the culturalist and (ii) the institutionalist perspectives. Based mainly on HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s (1980) value-based behavioural dimensions and concepts of national culture which have made an attempt to explain the influence of culture upon MultinationalsÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour, the culturalist approach has found widespread acceptance in the IHRM literature. Hofstede (1980) came to a conclusion that culture was the main determinant of the variations in work-related values, attitudes and behaviours among employees and managers within the same organisation, and of the same profession, age, or gender. Hofstede found that there were four dimensions that explained the differences in work-related values and behaviours: (i) Individualism and collectivism, (ii) Uncertainty avoidance, (iii) Power distance and (iv) Masculinity and femininity According to Girgin (2005), the culturalist approach endeavours to build an understanding of differences in work organisations, managerial behaviour and human resource practices based on attributes of national cultural distinctiveness in terms of values, ideas and beliefs shared by people in a given society. Under the divergence school of thought, the institutionalist perspective is the second. The main argument of the institutionalist perspective is that national institutional contexts (for example, government systems, training and development systems) play a major role in determining structures and strategies of organisations (Girgin, 2005). According to Girgin (2005), those who support the Institutionalist perspective stress the pressures on companies to acquire and maintain legitimacy in relation to the environment and the way that interlocking practices can bring benefits in particular systemic contexts. This perspective presents itself as a more comprehensive framework for the comparative study of different national systems (Girgin, 2005). For example, despite the knowledge of the influence of culture on organisational behaviour, HR practitioners cannot simply measure cultural values across their operations and predict behaviour, due cognisance must be given to various institutional contexts. As noted by Dewettinck and Remue (2011) certain practices are shared across or within particular contexts; some are distinctive of certain countries; some are unique to certain sectors or sections of an organization or even individuals. Without doubt, while each of the above approaches sharpens the focus on some aspects of HRM, it is possible that solely focusing on one aspect may unavoidably, hinder capturing the positive aspects from other perspectives(Mayrhofer and Brewster, 2005). Indeed what appears to be more significant in researching international HRM is the context. According to Dewettinck and Remue (2011) the notion of context and/or focus on contextual factors has been reflected in the cross-cultural embedment of many international HRM studies (Brewster, Mayrhoferand Morley, 2004), in addition, the Globe project which was focused on leadership also reveals that context is important (House and Javidan, 2004). For example, a recent study by Hartmann et al. (2010) of western multinationals operating in China shows that these organisations implement relatively unchanged HRM practices from their home country in their Chinese subsidiaries. The study of Hartmann et al. , reveals that consideration of contextual factors is important in the understanding of HRM practices and the management of people in an international context. As a matter of fact, results of Hartmann et al. Ã¢â¬â¢s study indicate that, although the Chinese subsidiaries of Western multinationals were able to implement unchanged HRM practices such as talent management from their headquarters, the practices were not successfully internalised. This demonstrates the significance of national cultures and being responsive to local needs in implementing HRM practices. The example above actually shows that context is an important aspect in researching international HRM regardless of the approach taken. In conclusion, there is indeed something to be learnt from each of the perspectives. Each of the perspectives do make considerable contribution to the understanding of international HRM.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s TriflesÃ¢â¬ A essay comparing the plays Ã¢â¬Å"TriflesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Dollhouse. Ã¢â¬ Joshua Long English 102 Amy Lannon March 21, 2012 Our societyÃ¢â¬â¢s gender roles are constantly evolving and changing, all in the name of Ã¢â¬Å"progressive thinkingÃ¢â¬ , though not all for the good. With a new Ã¢â¬Å"social normÃ¢â¬ appearing every few years or so, it comes as a surprise that it has been a relatively short time since women have broken through their defined roles to be seen on the same level as men on a social basis.Many of historyÃ¢â¬â¢s pages are written from a patriarchal perspective, opening the way for the female protagonists and complimentary characters in Susan GlaspellÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"TriflesÃ¢â¬ and Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s HouseÃ¢â¬ to make us rethink those gender roles through the events that occur during the plays and through their own complexity, providing interesting points of comparison and contrast between the plays and challenging audiences to think about gender roles in a new way. Both these plays are centered around married couples and are told from the perspectives of their respective female characters.In Ã¢â¬Å"Trifles,Ã¢â¬ we are introduced to Mrs. Wright and her fellow cast of characters a day after the murder of Mrs WrightÃ¢â¬â¢s husband. The play takes place after the fact, and much of the script is built around a conversation between Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters (women from the same rural town as the Wrights) about whether or not Mrs. Wright really committed the murder. The reader believes the entire time that she did, but is compelled to continue to find out why. Ã¢â¬Å"TriflesÃ¢â¬ is about a woman who murders her husband and two other women who lash out against their gender roles by withholding evidence from their husbands.Much shorter in length and lighter in tone than Ã¢â¬Å"A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House, with Ã¢â¬Å"TriflesÃ¢â¬ Susan Glaspell gets her point acro ss quickly, while Idsen takes his time in grinding his message home. In Ã¢â¬Å"A Doll's HouseÃ¢â¬ the critical aspects of the play are also divulged before the curtain is lifted. It is discovered that Nora, a woman who seems at ease with her gender role, has circumvented her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s will and has been paying off a debt behind his back for years, doing so as she resorted to having forged her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s signature to help her get said loan.We further learn that she has no problem lying to her husband about this to preserve the peace in their marriage, Nora would rather Torvald continue to think of her as a Ã¢â¬Å"spendthriftÃ¢â¬ than as a woman in debt, causing the reader to feel uneasy with the assumption that she is your average housewife character. A particularly interesting comparison exists between these two women protagonists in that both of them are compared to birds. Torvald calls Nora his Ã¢â¬Å"larkÃ¢â¬ (Ibsen 1259), and Mrs. Hale openly says Mrs.Wright Ã¢â¬Å"was kind of a bird herselfÃ¢â¬ (Glaspell 1054). While these seem to be innocent metaphors on the surface, darker tones soon overtake them as the plays progressÃ¢â¬âbirds can be trapped in cages in the same way that women might be considered to be trapped into their gender roles, where their duties are not to themselves but to their husbands and children(Helium 3). We do discover this theme in Ã¢â¬Å"Trifles,Ã¢â¬ when a literal canary is found strangled and its dead body sewed in the pocket of a quiltÃ¢â¬âstrangled by Mr. Wright and sewed away by Mrs.Wright, the same way Mrs. WrightÃ¢â¬â¢s spirit and free nature was discarded in order to serve her gender-assigned duties. Indeed, we actually see in her character a desire to serve those duties, a desire for children and to be a good wife through the descriptions we receive from Mrs. Hale, but these desires are denied by the cold, wintry spirit of one Mr. Wright. Mrs. Hale says as much to the County Attorney, Mr. Hen derson, when she says how she didn't think a Ã¢â¬Å"placeÃ¢â¬â¢d be any more cheerful for John WrightÃ¢â¬â¢s being in itÃ¢â¬ (1051).And for the woman once known as Minnie Foster, it was that same man who eroded her until she no longer was one of the town girls as she had been thirty years before, no longer a woman who sang in the choir, her happy, hopeful spirit, gone. Her final comfort in that otherwise drained and dreary home was that little singing canary that she had bought a year before the events of Ã¢â¬Å"Trifles,Ã¢â¬ and whose death sets her off to finally murder her own husband by tying a rope around his neck killing him much in the way he killed the bird and her own spirit. This is a perfect example of something as wondrous as marriage gone horribly wrong.While Mrs. Wright lashes out against her perceived cage, her gender role, by killing Mr. Wright, NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s character ultimately decides to trip the latch, to fly free from the bars. NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s complex per sonality proves to be difficult to predict to the very end, when she decides to shirk her duties to her husband and children to focus on herself, to serve her own needs for individuality, a decision that was not entirely popular with readers and audiences alike. Indeed, Nora quite easily refuses to be the Ã¢â¬Å"dollÃ¢â¬ in TorvaldÃ¢â¬â¢s house, and abandons her loving, though misguided husband, and her children.She feels driven to do this once she realizes that she and Torvald had never exchanged a serious word in their relationship, despite their discussion days earlier about Krogstad or about matters of money. But as Marvin Rosenberg writes in Ã¢â¬Å"IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s Nora,Ã¢â¬ it is the Ã¢â¬Å"humanizing faults that make her so exciting;Ã¢â¬ such as how she Ã¢â¬Å"munches on macaroons forbidden by Torvald,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"when he discovers the sweets, she lies: her friend brought them,Ã¢â¬ or how, in response to her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s inquiry about the scratches on th e mailbox, she Ã¢â¬Å"absolves herself Ã¢â¬ ¦ by blaming the scratches on her Ã¢â¬ ¦ children! (Helium 2) But no matter the challenges they issue to usual gender roles, NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s actions are not crimes, not for the most part, although it is a crime that she forged her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s name on the loan papers from Mr. Krogstad; however, it is unjust that is at the very heart of the challenges issued to Nora in Ã¢â¬Å"A Doll's HouseÃ¢â¬ that an otherwise harmless woman is forced to break what tradition would assert to be true and step out of Ã¢â¬Å"her boundariesÃ¢â¬ by doing so.However, it is not only Minnie FosterÃ¢â¬â¢s and NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s crimes that challenge such gender dynamics, but the actions and circumstances of their supporting casts as well. One example being that in at least one of the relationships in Ã¢â¬Å"A Doll House,Ã¢â¬ there is a complete reversal of typical gender assignments: it is exampled when Kristine Linde takes Mr. KrogstadÃ¢â¬â¢s job. Krist ine, a woman who proves herself capable of solving her own problems by herselfÃ¢â¬âwithout any manÃ¢â¬â¢s aidÃ¢â¬âduring the events events that unfold.Not only does she replace him at the bank where Torvald, NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s husband, is to serve as manager, but also later renews the relationship between the two of them from ten years prior and offers to work while he stays at homeÃ¢â¬âat least during the outset of their relationshipÃ¢â¬âbecause his taking the job back Ã¢â¬Å"benefitsÃ¢â¬ no one (Ibsen1292). It was also she who fixed her familyÃ¢â¬â¢s problems years before by taking it on herself to abandon her original relationship with Krogstad and marry a richer man, though she loved him not. Krogstad himself steps out of gender role when he accepts these ircumstances to fall upon himselfÃ¢â¬âhe does not care that he is, for the moment, not to be the breadwinner of the family: he cares only that he and Ms. Linde are at last reunited. Just as Ms. Linde and Krogst ad provide complimentary characters to go alongside Nora in challenging gender roles, the duo of Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters in Ã¢â¬Å"TriflesÃ¢â¬ perform the same task for Mrs. Wright (Helium 2). Together, these two women go about the home of the crime scene and discuss the case while gathering trinkets for the incarcerated Mrs.WrightÃ¢â¬âignoring some judgmental comments from both the County Attorney and the Sheriff during the processÃ¢â¬âand as the duet go through the home collecting various Ã¢â¬Å"Trifles,Ã¢â¬ they begin realizing odd things: like how the quilt is knotted strangely or how difficult it is to imagine there being a bird cage in the home. Eventually, it is they, and not the Country Attorney and Sheriff, who discover the strangled canary and put together the pieces of evidence confirming Mrs. WrightÃ¢â¬â¢s criminal acts.What is more, they agree to hide the evidence away, even though Mrs. Peters is the sheriffÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. So not only do the women in Ã¢â ¬Å"TriflesÃ¢â¬ solve the murder, but also protect one of their own in a way that influences the audience to think they do the right thing, even though that thing is protecting an admittedly sympathetic murderer. It is the actions of these secondary characters, women solving murders or women taking over the male duties of a family, that enable Ã¢â¬Å"TriflesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"A Doll's HouseÃ¢â¬ to challenge gender roles.If it was only Minnie Foster and Nora that had set out to challenge the conventions, then neither play would be heralded so much for their feminist themes. It is because there are multiple characters in each play that convince the reader and the audience that what is being presented to them is realistic to life that these themes begin to be clear. The conclusion of Mrs. WrightÃ¢â¬â¢s criminal trial is never shown, so we donÃ¢â¬â¢t know if she was released from jail because of the lack of evidence against herÃ¢â¬âfor all we know Mrs.Peters relented and ev entually tells the story of the dead canary to her husband the Sheriff. NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s destination after she departs TorvaldÃ¢â¬â¢s home is also left in the dark, and we have no way of knowing if she finds what she is looking for. Because the readers begin to hope that these imaginary characters encounter success, their thinking may change; they may ponder in a new way about womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights and gender conventions and how the duties in marriage should not be assigned due to the apabilities of one sex or the other, but shared between husband and wife. This is certainly the most socially and politically correct way of thinking, though there are some schools of thought that believe, while both sexes are equal to one another in their humanity, each sex possess unique strengths and weaknesses and that therefore, gender roles, while they can be taken to an extreme, do have a positive place in society.This way of thinking suggests that the true beauty of gender interaction lies in th e differences between them, not in the lifeless Ã¢â¬Å"samenessÃ¢â¬ (not to be confused with equality) that is so naively sought after, and that the the abolishment of the positive dynamics that have existed between sexes simply because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re Ã¢â¬Å"traditionalÃ¢â¬ , and because this destruction falls under the very shaky moniker of Ã¢â¬Å"forward thinking,Ã¢â¬ will cause great harm.The audience of these plays however, begins to see the power of human relationships when these women try to solve their problems, without the help of men, on stage. And that is exactly how Glaspell and Ibsen wrote them to be seenÃ¢â¬ânot as women, but as people. Those are the far-reaching effects that occur when we allow what we read, and see, to influence our thinking, and ultimately they are why Ã¢â¬Å"TriflesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"A Doll's HouseÃ¢â¬ have become so renowned as plays that challenge gender
Monday, July 29, 2019
Literature Review - Essay Example This paper analyses the recession and its influence on Indian ship breaking industry. The article Effect of recession, written by Nagpal N in 2008 has mentioned that the unemployment increased a lot because of recession. He has also mentioned that the companies forced to cut down their expenditure on advertising and media activities because of recession. Stock markets all over the world have shown negative results because of recession. Those who invested in housing, car, security and insurance schemes suffered lot of damages. Expatriates in America from countries like India lost their jobs and started to return because of the recession. As the dollar value falls, the American economy started to decline. The cheap goods manufacturers, China and Thailand like countries were also suffered lot of problems because of their market loss in America (Nagpal, 2008). The article Impact of global recession on India by Sonia Verma explained recession in terms of demand, inflation and deflation. Indian companies getting good outsourcing businesses from America and any economic problems in America may affect India also. Exports to America from India also suffered major setback because of recession. America stopped new hiring which is another concern for the Indian expatriate community in America. Around one crore persons could loss employment because of recession in America itself in a financial year. IT industries, financial sectors, real estate owners, car industry, investment banking and other industries were the major sufferers of the current recession (Verma, 2009) The article Recession proves to be a boon for ship breaking at Alang, reported heavy business in Indian ship breaking industry during the current recession period. It reported that companies docking vessels for disposal to avoid a downturn in freight rates. Rising steel prices,
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Final - Term Paper Example A company selling a hundred per cent polyester sweaters is not allowed by law to advertise their product under the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"That Wool Feel.Ã¢â¬ This is so because the phrase would be found misleading to the potential consumers and would count as a misrepresentation since the makers of the sweaters know that using the term Ã¢â¬Å"that wool feelÃ¢â¬ is false representation and that it is intended to induce justifiable reliance to the consumers. Also the issue of monetary loss arises in the fact that it is relatively cheaper to use polyester as a cloth making material as opposed to wool. The act also results in to a fraud since reliance is also established by the fact that a statement of the sweater makerÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion will be held as true hence relied upon by the consumer since the manufacturer has, by general assumption, more superior skill and knowledge about sweaters. In this case, the five elements of fraud apply. Case 2 In a case where a person or an organisation dec ides to use other personsÃ¢â¬â¢ material and the material happens to be copyrighted or patented, then the person should be held liable for one or more of the intellectual property torts. In the case sample given, College Copy Shop gained money from publishing whose owners reserved the sole right of republishing, duplicating or copying as is the case with any original publisher. The law of intellectual property tort states that once there is a patent or a copyright, as is in this case, using it for any other reason other than the ones expressly allowed by the publisher would be an infringement to the patent rights; hence patent law would be applied in deciding the case should a legal suit emerge. Case 3 Ace Corp. sent an invitation to J. Brown to work for them; an act that is legally considered as advertisement rather than an offer. J. Brown replied with details that he would like the job for a certain pay coupled with other demands and technically that was the offer. Afterwards Ac e Corp. replied to J. Browns offer and said that his offer was something they could work with and asked if J. Brown could report, something that he assented to. After the third month, he found that Ace Corp. was not honouring their initial agreement to the letter and decided to quit the job, where he moved back to the company he previously worked for before going to Ace Corp. During J. BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s exit from his employer Ace Corp., he took with him confidential information belonging to Ace Corp. and when he re-joined Crown, his employer before Ace Corp., he shared the stolen information with Crown. The issues in this case are if there was a contract between Ace Corp. and J. Brown, whether Ace Corp. breached it after denying J. Brown the bonus he had requested on the offer he made and if J. Brown can recover damages therein. Here is a detailed analysis on the above issues. Brown had a contract with Ace Corp. even though his offer was not out rightly accepted by letter or word of mo uth. In the laws of contract, performance is considered as adequate and sufficient acceptance if it is done in response to an offer or a counter offer. I this case, Ace Corp. accepted J. BrownÃ¢â¬â¢
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Emerging Market Feasibility Analysis - Assignment Example Brazil is also identified as a member of the Organization for Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC), G-20, G8+5, and a founding member of the North American Free Trade Agreement (Fafchamps, 2003). These accolades are however identified to be very broad and generalized and cannot influence any rational decision making as to the liability of a new entrant business in Brazil. To make such decision making credible, rational and accurate, a more technical approach to viewing Brazil as an emerging market is needed. It is for this reason that the current emerging market feasibility analysis to come close up with Brazil as a destination for the small scale company. The purpose of the study is also to critically analyze the feasibility of the business in surviving in the intended market. There shall therefore be focus on the company with some level of emphasis on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s investors, customer issues, and financial requirements. In totality, the emerging market feasibility analysis shall be conducted from five objectives given as: 1. To analyse the strength of the business idea in relation to the chosen market. 2. To identify any country-related issues that might affect the start-up. 3. To explore relevant business and customer norms in the identified market. 4. To analyse potential financial issues that will arise from starting the business. 5. To propose a prototypical founder or group of founders suitable for the oil manufacturing firm that is being proposed? Research Approach Generally, this project is a case study that studies the specific case of the feasibility of a new vegetable oil manufacturing company in Brazil as a small scale business. As part of the case study approach, there shall be elements of both primary and secondary data collection to ensure that data collected for the study is high coordinated, validated and judged as reliable. Using a combined approach of primary and secondary data collection will improve the internal validity of the study because data that are collected from the field of study as primary data can easily be justified or authenticated using secondary data, which is more of data already existing in literature. One crucial approach that will make the project very elaborate, well organized and focused i s the use of feasibility analysis matrix. This matrix has been presented in such a way that it contains five major session of data collection, which have been distributed among the five objectives listed above. This means that each of the five objectives is represented in one section or row of the matrix. Under each objective also, there shall be five feasibility indicators that will be critically analyzed using both primary and secondary data collection. The analysis of the indicators shall be done in a manner that scores the feasibility of each objective of the project. Completed feasibility analysis matrix shall be presented at the appendix section of the project. Within the project however, there shall be a detailed discussion of the findings that are made under each objective of the study. Theoretical Framework This section of the project named theoretical analysis is essentially useful in offering a theoretical background to the problem of small scale business entry into emerg ing markets. This will be done through clearly defined knowledge of literature presented in one specific paradigm of theory. Specifically, focus is given to the theory of emerging market development. This theory started much like a support service given to new businesses that
Friday, July 26, 2019
INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATIONAL AND SOCIAL RESEARCH - Essay Example 3. Focus/scope The focus is comparing rationalistic and naturalistic paradigms in evaluating student teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ reflective practice held at Utrecht University and Trondheim University. 4. Location & Duration The locations of the study are Utrecht University and Trondheim University. The duration is a period of two to four months at the end of the teacher education programme. 5. Research Design & Methods Naturalistic (qualitative) method and mixed methods are used. The researchers have moved away from traditional research methods towards a concern for story-telling. 6. Key Concepts and Ideas The REFLECT project is linked to the postmodern period characterised by Guba and Lincoln or post-experimental enquiry. It involves two paradigms, rationalistic and naturalistic, in which the reflections of student teachers are compared through the Utrecht study and Trondheim study. 7. Key Findings, Recommendations, & Implications for Your Enquiry Interactions between communicating persons Ã¢ â¬â student teacher, teacher educator, and researcher -are the one creating Ã¢â¬Å"voicesÃ¢â¬ . The researchers are part of the story they are telling. The researchersÃ¢â¬â¢ interpretation is the true voice of the refection in the study. The shift from a rationalistic perspective towards a more naturalistic one is mirrored in the Trondheim study. No recommendations are provided. The implications for my enquiry are that the paradigms can aid in evaluatinghow misbehavior of students may be affected on the teacher performance in classroom? Admiraal and WubbelsÃ¢â¬â¢ (2012) have focused on comparing two research approaches of reflective practice of two different modes of tele-guidance. This comparison is seen herein as an essential stance for the study in providing a clear view of the methodologies and approaches used. The purpose of this critical evaluation is to lay down the similarities and differences between two approaches in reflective thinking, aiming to draw inferences on how these approaches may be adopted to my own study, which is how misbehavior of students may affect the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in the classroom. The direction of Admiraal and WubbelsÃ¢â¬â¢ (2012) study to take on a storytelling method from the traditional research methods is congruent to its purpose and nature, being focused on comparing two research approaches of reflective practice of two different modes of tele-guidance. The position of the study is highlighted in the fact that it resulted in two different reports on student teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ reflective stances despite the fact that they share some perspectives on educational practices and reflections. Admiraal and Wubbels have emphasised that the different analyses and results are where the differences in beliefs in the Utrecht and Trondheim studies lie, apparently to see any alternatives to viewing the same phenomenon through two different lenses. This direction of the studies apparently seeks to adopt replicability by employing mixed methods and qualitative method respectively, called Ã¢â¬ËconvergenceÃ¢â¬â¢ by Gorard and Taylor. Similarly, my study on how misbehavior of students may affect the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in the classroom shall take on a qualitative method and a case study design, which can be drawn from in-depth interviews and participant observation. The Utrecht and Trondheim studies are focused on adopting two different paradigms to seeing two student teaching practice environments, contrasting each other
Mintzberg's 5 Ps for Strategy (1987) - Essay Example In this paper, we proceed to structure our argument thus: in brief, we summarize Mintzberg (1987) covering the key points of his paper and its implications. Secondly, we proceed to review his own works that support and contradict his proposed definitions. Thirdly, we review the works of several scholars who either support or oppose his work implicitly; this can be understood by uncovering the context of their studies. Towards the end, we proceed to integrate our findings and conclude. Critical Review Mintzberg (1987) provides five broad definitions for strategy stating that it could a Plan, Ploy, Pattern, Position or Perspective. While plan and ploy fall under the same construct for his definition, there is a subtle difference in his usage of Ã¢â¬ËployÃ¢â¬â¢. Ploy is defined as an action or strategy that is designed for someone else to react. The real action may or may not transpire in practice. Pattern is observed behavior. This results when the ground reality can be seen. Mintz berg, in his paper, refers to this as a realized strategy. Observe the parallels with one of his other research papers (Mintzberg & Waters 1985). In this paper, the authors observe that the final strategy which is enacted by the organization, also called the realized strategy may not be the one they started out with. In his earlier research, Mintzberg (1978) describes patterns as being parallel to the realized strategy, which in effect is a series of decisions taken by the firm. Being manifested in terms of the operational or pricing actions, they can be observed. Clearly, Mintzberg has been focused in developing his research ideas and theories in a sequential manner based on empirical observations. Position refers to the interaction of the organization with its business environment. In other words, here we can draw parallels with a firm operating within an industry. The strategy in this case is a question of how the firm positions itself within the environment. The final definition of strategy through Ã¢â¬ËperspectiveÃ¢â¬â¢ seeks to locate it within the confines of the Ã¢â¬Ëcollective mindÃ¢â¬â¢ of the organization. Mintzberg provides an internal view in this case, as opposed to the external environment defined view in the earlier definitions. Psychologists refer to this as the cognitive make-up of the organization, anthropologists refer to this as the cultural aspect and management theories discuss this in terms of the Ã¢â¬Ëdriving forceÃ¢â¬â¢. At this stage, it is meaningful to analyze the contention (our title) with references from other scholars. While there has been a flood of research into strategy definitions, some of the texts offer us more in-depth expositions. Consider De Wit & Meyer (2010) who discuss strategy from three different perspectives: process, content and context. It is appropriate to explain it further. Process refers to the thoughts, mapping and schema that reside in the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s mind or the collective organizatio nal mind. Here the first stage is thinking, wherein an idea is visualized. Possibly, here one can relate to Hambrick & Mason (1983) who suggest that most strategies in any organization are conceived in the mind of the top management, who then proceed to ensure percolation through the rank and file; their conceived strategies form the future of the organizatio
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Entrepreneurship Assignment Question 1 (2000 words) Breaking up the market into segments by the Entrepreneur can be the - Essay Example Table of Contents Executive Summary 2 Introduction 4 Literature Review 5 Critical Analysis 7 Conclusion 10 Reference List 11 Introduction The early definitions of entrepreneurship given by economist are seen to emphasize on risk, ownership, supply of financial capital and co-ordination of various factors. However, entrepreneurship is seen as the efforts made by an individual that goes against every odds towards converting a vision into successful business enterprise. Entrepreneurship is the search for some discontinuous opportunities that are involved towards creation of an organization or sub organization in the expectation of creating value for the participants. Entrepreneur is a person or a group of individuals who identifies opportunities, collects necessary resources and makes effort towards the performance of the organization (Gungaphul and Boolaky, 2009). In order to make a business venture successful the entrepreneurs need to choose a proper target market (Crane, 2007). Targe t market is defined as the specific group of customers towards whom the marketing effort created by the firm is directed. It is selected as a part from the whole market. Defining the target market correctly is a critical element in creating a successful marketing strategy. It may be a disaster if marketing plans are made to cater to wrong target customers. Employees and manager are seen to focus on providing value to the well-defined segment of target customers (Gitman and McDaniel, 2008). Entrepreneurs with exciting ideas and innovative product and services often forget about focusing towards right customers. This study focuses on critical analysis of the importance of choosing right target market for success of entrepreneurs. Literature Review Defining target market Business firms and entrepreneurs tempted to describe the target in the broadest and best possible way in which they look for including a large set of customers who can be huge potentials in using the services and produ cts. By doing this they get a huge comfort by the sense that they have a huge market to exploit. But in reality this is seen to provide very little genuine information based on which business decisions will be made. This insists the need for identifying a particular market segment that would provide a more exact description of distinct and meaningful components of the overall market which in turn helps in identification of target market of the business based on certain specific characteristics (Abrams, 2003). However, while defining the target market certain criteria needs to be met, like it needs to be definable which signifies that specific characteristics should be identified based on the requirement and needs of the customers that are in common. It has to be meaningful, which signifies that the characteristic should be as such that it is related to the decision of purchase made by the clients. The target market needs to be sizable which signifies that the target market needs to be large enough so that it can help the profitably sustain in the market (Barringer and Ireland, 2008). The target market should be reachable which signifies that the size and definition should be as such
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Community Profile (demography) - Brisbane City Inner - Essay Example Brisbane is the busiest commercial centre of the Queensland, which not only earns significant revenue for the entire state, but also it carries the load of unemployment, educational and health requirements of Queensland. It is therefore the people from suburb regions migrate towards the capital city for business and employment purposes. The history as well as the demographic, cultural, social, economic and religious aspects of the city have been analysed under the following headings: Historical Background: The archaeologists have defined various methodologies while detecting the historical backgrounds of different regions and cities of the world. The same is the case with Brisbane city, where the archaeologists and theorists lay stress upon estimating and analysing the nature, characteristics and features of creeks, hills, meadows and ravines, situated in Brisbane, around which this splendid city has been constructed. Ã¢â¬Å"To discover the early history of Brisbane, one needs to look no further than the oyster shell mounds found along the canyons and ravines of its creeks. From those mounds, archaeologists have unearthed relics of the first inhabitants of the area: the Costanoan Indians.Ã¢â¬ (Retrieved from ci.brisbane.ca.us) The Costanoan Indians lived in this coastal city for decades with peace and solidarity till the European nations started arriving towards the city and taking its hold through their military might. Though the US, French and other Europea n nations set their foot in the land, it were the British forces officials who captured the control of the country and set up their political and military establishment in Australia. Sir Thomas Brisbane is regarded as the founder person of the Brisbane city in 1825, which established the city on modern lines. The city was divided into zones and councils during the second half of twentieth century, and is still in
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Discuss the racial stereotypes of Mexicans that underpinned Manifest Destiny - Essay Example The American people held a superior position and felt that their motive to apply their expansionist policies was religiously justified for their God chosen race. In this regard, the presidential candidate embraced the Manifest destiny, whose optimal goal was to ensure that the American territory spans across the seas. In reality, the race stereotypes of the Mexicans underpinned Manifest destiny during the implementation of the expansionist policy by the Americans. Even before the existence of the term Manifest Destiny, the notion of American inferiority was already looming and the Mexicans were already anticipating wars from the American people. In the year 1803, the president of America, Jefferson, acquired the Louisiana territory and the American slowly drifted towards the west becoming among the most dangerous neighbours of the Mexican people. By the time president Poll was getting into power, Mexico was the country that was standing between the United States and the Pacific Ocean . When Poll got into power in 1845, he raised the spirit of Manifest Destiny and the effort to expand USA further west via Mexico was revived. Being a democrat, Poll felt that there was need to develop this political culture across the territories to make a dominant culture (Litke, 2012, p. 198). To the American, the underpinning thrust of the expansionist policy was the urge to democratize the entire of North America and Mexico was a barrier to this legitimate expansion. Shane (2009, P. 10) points out the notion of Americans that Catholics were an inferior religious race. The AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s were obsessed with the motive to grow and develop their countries to become exemplary to the countries that were Ã¢â¬Å"religiously inferior.Ã¢â¬ This was a stereotypic reference that American used to refer to the MexicanÃ¢â¬â¢s who AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s regarded as inferior for the reason that they were catholicists, a religion that was inferior to the protestant group. AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s fe lt that they were the anointed race and that their motive to expand was just a fulfilment of one of the promises that God had made to them. This religious superiority was a source of conflict that intensified the tension between American and the MexicanÃ¢â¬â¢s that were already familiar with the intention of President Poll to expand his territories beyond the Mexican boundaries. From this perspective, AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s stereotypical reference of Mexican as a religiously inferior race was a trigger pin that culminated into the war between the two countries. From the US History Guide Book (2010, p. 6), the American leaders were obsessed with the notion to create an admirable city that would be unique from those of the inferior nations. The proponents of expansionism reflect to the idea of Puritans who were the first people to settle in the northern Atlantic, and who, under the inspiration Governor Winthrop, came to believe that their settlement was equivalent to Ã¢â¬Å"a city on a h ill.Ã¢â¬ Horsman (2009, p. 116) makes a connection between this city on a hill and the term that was later used by Ronald Reagan later in 1980 to describe a different perspective of expansion in America. Reagan referred to America as a Ã¢â¬Å"shining city upon a hillÃ¢â¬ in his endeavour to paralyse communism and create a country that embraced pure democrats, what he perceived to the
Monday, July 22, 2019
Midas Case Study Essay Winners: From the customers perspective the winners which ensures they utilise Midas are Speed and Price. In order to assess the anticipated impacts of the introduction of maintenance services on the existing business process it is necessary to analyse the potential fit of the new business with the existing areas. This analysis will indicate whether or not the process can be effectively integrated within the existing production process without jeopardising the companys existing winning qualifiers. Potential negative impacts ?Need to new skills within taskforce ? training is necessary; ? Complicates the operation process; ?Demands on physical space and potential capacity constraints; ? Pressure on storage space of inventory ? may require offsite storage which may complicate the operation process; ? Additional labour demands; ?Planning complexity; ?New machinery will be required creating further pressures on location space; ? More time is required to offer all services; ?Possible bottlenecks in the operation process; ?Customer awareness of new services needs to be addressed. The problem with the proposed introduction of the maintenance services is that Midas is moving from specialised services, namely mufflers and brakes into more general services such as maintenance. The potential negative impacts have been outlined above, and the successful product line extension must be managed to ensure effective allocation of resources so that the existing businesses are not harmed. Suggested implementation We believe that the inherent nature of the maintenance services is different in form from the very specialised areas of replacement mufflers and brake servicing. Therefore we believe that effective product extension should be introduced in an isolated manner to ensure that the existing operation processes are affected as little as possible. Additional space, additional equipment and labour force retraining would be required in order to implement this new service. Certain information should be gathered from the shop owners. Midas should find out the amount of available resources (labour, space, etc? ) to gain a clearer picture of storeowners ideas/feedback, and to engage them in the product line extension. The storeowners are closer to day to day operations and therefore are better suited to assess the viability of the extension. Extension of the services should be restricted to those stores that have sufficient resources (including floor space, under-utilised labour, and inventory storage onsite) to allow product line extension so as to ensure that the Midas brand image in their main business of muffler and brake servicing are not harmed by capacity and service problems. Extension of the services should be monitored by preset criteria by the head offices in the various countries. If the service proves successful the viability of purchasing extra land to expand these services in other stores should be explored.
Lord RaglanÃ¢â¬â¢s Hercules Essay Lord RaglanÃ¢â¬â¢s gave Hercules an outstanding 17 points on his hero scale pattern. This scale classifies the parallel characteristics of most mythical heroes. Overall, the similarities of Hercules to other heroes is the fact that he is the son of a god, there was an intent of killing him during birth, he once wandered in a place away form his family, and won battles with abominable creatures (Raglan, 1998). William Burkert, in years of evaluating mythical heroes, found a pattern on the makings of a fictional icon. Particularly the idea of a hero being a master or mistress of animals has won over the side of hunters which is possibly of a Paleolithic origin. In the story of Hercules this is apparent in most of the Twelve Labors he battled. HerculesÃ¢â¬â¢ first task is to kill the Nemean Lion and to bring back its skin. He later found out that arrows are useless in fighting the mighty beast. With his pure strength, he grasped the lion with his own bare hands and choked him to death. His second labor is to slay the Lernaean Hydra, a monstrous snake with nine heads living in the murky waters of Lerna. Every time Hercules got the chance to cut off one head, another one will grow in its place. He them commissioned the help of Iolaus in holding a torch every time Hercules cut off one head. Then after, Hercules finally disposed of the monster for good. Other examples of Hercules as master of animals can be stressed in the third to eighth labor, as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Capture the Ceryneian Hind Ã¢â¬ ¢ Capture the Erymanthian Boar Ã¢â¬ ¢ Slay the Stymphalian Birds Ã¢â¬ ¢ Capture the Cretan Bull Ã¢â¬ ¢ Steal the Mares of Diomedes In Greeks official religion, this may be deemed as somehow similar to folklore. Burkert detected a recurrent pattern in some of the actions and behavior of Greek heroes. This particular pattern includes youth, defloration, threat by a close relative, finding a partner, giving birth and finally, retribution. Another pattern is a relevant scapegoat in most hero storylines. (Burkert, 1979) Hercules (also referred to as Herakles and Alcides) was a Roman-Greek hero popular because of his strength and bravery. He is the half-god, half-mortal son of the powerful Zeus (Jupiter) and the Alceme. This identity of Hercules is similar to Catholic patron God, Jesus, who is also both human and divine. When Hera, ZeusÃ¢â¬â¢ goddess wife, heard about the birth of Hercules she was madly jealous about him. She sent two serpents to kill the young Zeus in his crib. Exhibiting valor and incredible strength, even as a child, Hercules killed the serpents all by himself. This display of power can be compared to the Bible hero Samson. Unlike Samson, who gains his vigor with his long hair, Hercules has an inherent strength that is within him ever since his first breathe. During his youth, an important decision during his lifetime is choosing between the life of virtue and the life of pleasure. A hard question posed to him by the goddess Aphrodite and Athena. The young hero decided to lead a life of virtue. This is a unique path to lead. This is in contrast to revered Indian icon, Gautam Buddha, who lived the life royalty and pleasure in his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s palace when he was a child. Hercules welcomes struggle and hardships of life, with a strong belief that glory and true happiness comes along with it. Hercules then married Megara and the fruit of their love gave them children. Hera, still enraged about the very existence of Hercules, used all her powers to drive Hercules mad. In his insanity, he unknowingly killed his children and wife. Once he regained his insanity, he asked Oracle and Delphi on how he can compensate for what he did. He was instructed to serve the Eurystheus, the King of Tiryns, for twelve years. He is then ordered to carry out Twelve Labors to attain a peaceful soul again. During his quest, he was endowed with the virtue of courage, strength, and wisdom. His journey was quite similar to the long and tedious adventure of Odysseus. Traveling different land and voyaging the waters. He completed his tasks and redeemed his integrity and good soul. With such an exemplar accomplishment, he was then crowned a seat in the place of gods in Olympus. In his ascend to Olympus, he left all his mortal characteristics on earth and was born again with all divinity. Hercules the reconciled with Hera and lived peacefully as a family with this divine father, Zeus (Loewen,1998). Works Cited Burkert, Walter. Structure and History in Greek Mythology and Ritual. University of California Press, 1979 Loewen, Juvenile. Hercules. Capstone Press, 1998 Raglan, Fitzroy Richard. The Hero: A Study in Tradition, Myth and Drama. Somerset: Courier Dover Publications, 2003
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Ebola Virus: History, Symptoms and Treatment Vijayatheeban Jeyanandan Ebola virus outbreaks: The deadly and incurable Hemorrhagic fever Contents (Jump to) 1.1 Introduction. 1.2 History of Ebola virus. 1.3 Characteristics of Ebola virus. 1.4 Symptoms of Ebola infection. 1.5 Diagnosis methods. 1.6 Treatment methods. 1.7 Conclusion Reference list 1.1 Introduction A reported by the World Health Organization (2014) Ebola virus disease once known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever is a serious, frequently deadly disease, with a case casualty rate of up to 90%. There are no authorized particular medications or vaccine accessible for utilization in individuals or creatures. Stanford education (2014) states that Ebola virus was initially recognized as a possible new strain of Marburg virus in 1976. Stanford education states that Ebola infection is initially wide spreading in Sudan and Zaire. Ebola virus is a member of filoviridae family. Farrar and Piot (2014) reported that as of September 14, 2014, a total of 4507 confirmed and likely instances of Ebola virus disease, and also 2296 deaths from the infection, had been accounted for from five nations in West Africa Ã¢â¬â Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal, and Sierra Leon. Contact with body fluids demonstrated a solid affiliation. Francesconi et al. (2003) comments that Persons who had immediate physical contact with a infected person were more inclined to have gained the disease. 1.2 History of Ebola virus Peters and Leduc (1999) comments that biomedical science initially experienced the virus family filoviridae when Marburg virus showed up in 1967 and in the late 1970s, the global group was again startled, this time by the revelation of Ebola infection as the causative executor of significant flare-ups of hemorrhagic fever in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Sudan. History of Ebola infection can be found online (Stanfort education, 2014) The first outbreaks of infected in excess of 284 peoples, with a 53% death rate. After the few months the second Ebola infection caused from Yambuku, Zaire, Ebola-Zaire (EBOZ). EBOZ, with the most astounding death rate of any of the Ebola infection (88%), contaminated 318 peoples. In 1989, a novel infection, Reston Ebolavirus (REBOV) was secluded from commonly tainted cynomolgus macaques imported from the Philippines into United States. All shipments aside from one were followed to single supplier in the Philippines; however, the main beginning of the infection and mode of sullying for the office has never been learned. While pathogenic for regularly and tentatively tainted monkeys, constrained information demonstrate that REBOV may not be pathogenic for people as creature overseers without delivering clinical side effects. A review by Georges et al. (1999) reported that, in 1994, at Gabon, Occured in MÃ ©kouka and other gold-mining camps profound in the downpour backwoods. At first thought to be yellow fever; recognized as Ebola hemorrhagic fever in 1995. Zuckerman(2008) reported that In 2000, Happened in Gulu, Masindi, and Mbarara areas of Uganda. The three most essential dangers connected with Ebola infection contamination were going to funerals of Ebola hemorrhagic fever patients, having contact with infected patients in ones family, and giving restorative forethought to Ebola infected patients without utilizing sufficient individual defensive measures. In this situation, reported number of human cases is 425 and reported number of deaths among cases is 224. 1.3 Characteristics of Ebola virus A review by Sullivan et al. (2003) comments that Ebola was found in 1976 and is a member of the Filovirus family, which are pleomophic, negative-sense RNA viruses whose genome organization is most similar to the paramyxoviridae. Geisbert et al. (2010) states EBOV particles contain a non-infectious RNA genome of roughly 19 kilobases that encodes seven structural proteins and one non-structural protein. The gene order is 3Ã¢â¬ ² leader, nucleoprotein, virion protein 35 , virion protein 40, glycoprotein, virion protein 30, polymerase L protein, and 5Ã¢â¬ ² trailer.3 Four of these proteinsÃ¢â¬ânucleoprotein, virion protein30, virion protein35, and the polymerase L proteinÃ¢â¬âare associated with the viral genomic RNA in the ribonucleoprotein complex.Crowley and Crusberg (2014) states Ebola viruses are long and filamentious, essentially bacilliform. However the viruses mostly get on a Ã¢â¬Å"UÃ¢â¬ shape. The particles of these viruses can be above 14,000 nm in long and average 80 nm in diameter. Visualscience.ru (2014) states Ebola has a layer envelope its shaped from the film of the host cell during virus budding. The viral molecule additionally catches various human proteins. Ebola surface protein, encoded by the gp gene. Transmission of the virus PHAC-ASPC.GC.CA (2014) states, that in an outbreak, it is theorized that the first patient gets to be infected as an aftereffect of contact with an infected animals. Person to person transmission happens by means of close personal contact with an infected individual or their body fluids during the late stages of disease or after death. Centers for Disease Control (2014) reported that Ebola is not spread through the air or by water, or in general, foods. However Ebola is spread through direct contact with blood or body fluids including but not limited to urine, salivation, dung, regurgitation, and semen of an individual who is infected by Ebola. And also Ebola virus can be transmitted by objects like needles and syringes that have been contaminated with the virus. 1.4 Symptoms of Ebola infection Smith (2014) stats that, the symptoms of Ebola may be shown out from 2 days to 21 days after the infection of Ebola virus, but the average is 8 to 10 days from the infection. The symptoms are quite similar to the flu, cholera, typhoid, and malaria. The symptoms usually include high fever, serious head pain, body weakness, retching, diarrhea, stomach torment, Lack of apptite, and sore throat. Symptoms of Ebola can be found online (Health24, 2014). Progression of Ebola fever causes bleeding inside the body, and from the eyes, ears, nose and anus. Some individuals will vomit or hack up blood, have wicked looseness of the bowels, have impaired kidney and liver function, have continues hiccups and get a rash. Diagnosing methods of Ebola can be found online (Cdc.gov, 2014). In the earlier stage is really very difficult because the early symptoms are quite similar to the symptoms of malaria and typhoid fever. In his analysis Zubay (2005,pp) says that tests with live virus must be performed in Biosafety Level 4 regulation research centers, due to the compelling harmfulness and infectiousness of disease. 1.5 Diagnosis methods Diagnosing methods of Ebola can be found online (Centers for disease control and prevention, 2014). In the earlier stage is really very difficult because the early symptoms are quite similar to the symptoms of malaria and typhoid fever. In his analysis Zubay (2005,p.71,72) says that tests with live virus must be performed in Biosafety Level 4 regulation research centers, due to the compelling harmfulness and infectiousness of disease. A review by Saijo et al, (2006) says after the isolation, the virus can be detected via various laboratory diagnostic methods like virus isolation, reverse transcription, real time quantitative method , antigen-capture enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay method (ELISA), antigen detection by immunostaining, or IgG-and IgM-ELISA using authentic virus antigens (9, 18, 28-30, 32, 48, 50, 53, 64). Diagnosing methods can differ with the time line of infection which can be found online (Centers for disease control and prevention, 2014). Within a few days after the symptoms shown out we could use Antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing or IgM ELISA or Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or Virus isolation and for retrospectively in deceased patients we need to use Immunohistochemistry testing or PCR or virus isolation and later in the disease course or after recovery we could use IgM and IgG antibodies. In his analysis Bray (2014) says that as indicated by the WHO, people who no more have signs and indications of Ebola infection sickness can be released on the off chance that they have two contrary PCR tests on entire blood, differentiated by no less than 48 hours. 1.6 Treatment methods Schoenstadt (2014) says that there are no proven treatment methods to kill the Ebola virus therefore, treatment concentrates on giving easing of side effects as the body battles the virus. This is called supportive care. Ziady and Small (2004) stats that patients receive supportive treatments like balancing fluid and electrolytes, maintaining tissue and pulmonary oxygenation, maintaining blood circulation by replacing blood loss, and treating complications symptomatically. Gupta, (2014) comments that chronicled examples in medication improvement recommend that there is a slim likelihood of accomplishment with the current arrangement of potential Ebola treatments. Torrence (2005) stats that scientists have also examined the potential of heterologous live viral vectors in effectively preventing Ebola virus infection. And we also can say good nursing care and using antibiotics to prevent secondary infections from bacteria also supportive care for Ebola. Lamontagne et al. (2014) says General wellbeing mediations including describing the episode the study of disease transmission, contact following, social assembly, and state funded instruction are fundamental steps in ceasing Ebola and will at last spare a lot of people a larger number of lives than can be spared by individual patient forethought. (Geisbert, 2014) says that antibody therapies and several other methodologies mentioned here should ultimately be included in an arsenal of interventions for controlling future Ebola outbreaks. 1.7 Conclusion Ebola is infection and highly lethal and with no verifiably effective vaccine available. However the ebola hemorraghic fever can be control by spreading virus. First of all, the health ministry of government and who knows about the Ebola virus disease they should be Awareness to essential peoples. Because everyone must be attention about the Ebola infection. The ebola infection only can diagnosis under the advanced laboratory, but there are no lab facilities backwardness areas and also some essential countries. However who the person shows the ebola virus symptoms, we should be try to transfer to where can diagnose. In the future government should be provide advanced lab facilities for diagnose the infection when the infection highly spreading. The medical workers of ebola virus diagnosing or researching they should be wear protective clothing transport a man suffering from Ebola. Reference list Bray, M. (2014). Uptodate. Available at: http://www.uptodate.com/contents/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-ebola-and-marburg-virus-disease# (Accessed 30 October 2014). Centers for disease control and prevention (2014) Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/diagnosis/ (Accessed 29 October 2014). Centers for disease and prevention (2014). Transmission of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever [online] Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/transmission/ (Accessed 27 September 2014). Crowley, J. and Crusberg, T. (2014). Genomic Structure, Comparative and Molecular Biology. Available at: http://www.mcb.uct.ac.za/ebola/ebolagen.html (Accessed: 28 September 2014). Farrar, J. and Piot, P. (2014). Ã¢â¬ËEbola Virus Disease in West Africa -The First 9 Months of the Epidemic and Forward ProjectionsÃ¢â¬â¢, New England Journal Medicine, 371(16), pp.1481-1495 [Online]. Available at: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1411100 (Accessed: 6 November 2014) Francesconi, P., Yoti, Z., Declich, S., Onek, P., Fabiani, M., Olango, J., Andraghetti, R., Rollin, P., Opira, C., Greco, D. and Salmaso, S. (2003). Ã¢â¬ËEbola Hemorrhagic Fever Transmission and Risk Factors of Contacts, UgandaÃ¢â¬â¢. Emerging Infectous Disease, 9(11), pp.1430-1437, National Center for Biotechnology Information [Online]. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3035551/ (Accessed: 6 November 2014) Geisbert, T., Lee, A., Robbins, M., Geisbert, J., Honko, A., Sood, V., Johnson, J., de Jong, S., Tavakoli, I., Judge, A., Hensley, L. and MacLachlan, I. (2010). Postexposure protection of non-human primates against a lethal Ebola virus challenge with RNA interference: a proof-of-concept study. 375(9729), pp.1896-1905, The Lancet. (online). Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(10)60357-1 (Accessed 28 September 2014) Geisbert, T. (2014). Ã¢â¬ËMedical research: Ebola therapy protects severely ill monkeysÃ¢â¬â¢, Nature, 514(7520), pp.41-43, Nature Publishing Group [Online]. Available at: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vnfv/ncurrent/full/nature13746.html (Accessed:6 November 2014). Georges, A., Leroy, E., Renaut, A., Benissan, C., Nabias, R., Ngoc, M., Obiang, P., Lepage, J., Bertherat, E., Benoni, D. (1999). Ebola hemorrhagic outbreaks in Gabon. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 179(Supplement 1), pp.6575. [Online]. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9988167 (Accessed: 6 Oct. 2014). Gupta, R. (2014). Ã¢â¬ËRethinking the development of Ebola treatmentsÃ¢â¬â¢, The Lancet Global Health, 2(10), pp.e563-e564 [Online]. Available at: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(14)70304-3/fulltext (Accessed: 6 November 2014). Health24 (2014). Available at: http://www.health24.com/Medical/infectious-diseases/Ebola/Signs-and-symptoms-of-Ebola-20140729 (Accessed 29 October 2014). Lamontagne, F., ClÃ ©ment, C., Fletcher, T., Jacob, S., Fischer, W. and Fowler, R. (2014). Ã¢â¬ËDoing Todays Work Superbly Well Ã¢â¬â Treating Ebola with Current ToolsÃ¢â¬â¢. New England Journal of Medicine, 371(17), pp.1565-1566 [Online]. Available at: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1411310 (Accessed: 6 November 2014) Mahy, B. and Van Regenmortel, M. (2010). Desk encyclopedia of human and medical virology. Google books [Online]. Available at: http://books.google.lk/books?id=nsh48WKIbhQCpg=PA382dq=ebola+virus+history+originhl=ensa=Xei=rCUyVP7wDcSjugTzs4GQDQved=0CDMQ6AEwBA#v=onepageq=ebola%20virus%20history%20originf=false (Accessed 4 Oct. 2014). Peters, C. and LeDuc, J. (1999). Ã¢â¬ËAn Introduction to Ebola: The Virus and the DiseaseÃ¢â¬â¢. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 179(s1), p.Six-xvi. [Online]. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/514322 (Accessed 4 Oct. 2014). Public Health Agency of Canada (2014). Available at: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/ebola-eng.php (Accessed 27 September 2014). Saijo, M., Niikura, M., Ikegami, T., Kurane, I., Kurata, T. and Morikawa, S. (2006). Ã¢â¬ËLaboratory Diagnostic Systems for Ebola and Marburg Hemorrhagic Fevers Developed with Recombinant ProteinsÃ¢â¬â¢. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 21, November [Online]. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/cvi.13.4.444-451.2006 (Accessed 30 October 2014). Schoenstadt, A. (2014). eMedTV: Health Information Brought To Life. Available at: http://ebola.emedtv.com/ebola/ebola-treatment.html (Accessed: 6 November 2014) Smith,W. (2014).Webmd. Available at: http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/ebola-fever-virus-infection (Accessed 29 Oct. 2014). Sullivan, N., Yang, Z. and Nabel, G. (2003). Ebola Virus Pathogenesis: Implications for Vaccines and Therapies. 77(18), pp.9733-9737, Journal of Virology. [online]. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jvi.77.18.9733-9737.2003 (Accessed 28 September 2014). Torrence, P. (2005). Antiviral drug discovery for emerging diseases and bioterrorism threats. Google books [Online]. Available at: http://books.google.lk/books?id=QZl7GzhTsb8Cdq=Torrence,+P+Antiviral+drug+discovery+for+emerging+diseases+and+bioterrorism+threats.source=gbs_navlinks_s (Accessed: 6 November 2014). Visualscience.ru (2014). Available at: http://visualscience.ru/en/projects/ebola/poster/ (Accessed 28 September 2014). Web.stanford.edu (2005) Available at: https://web.stanford.edu/group/virus/filo/history.html (Accessed: 6 November 2014). World Health organization (2014). Ebola Virus Diseases (EVD) Implication of Introduction in the Americas. Jamaica: Jamaica information service [online]. Available at: http://jis.gov.jm/features/ebola-virus-diseases-evd-implication-introduction-americas/ (Accessed 6 November 2014). Ziady, L. and Small, N. (2004). Prevent and control infection. Google books [Online]. Available at: http://books.google.lk/books?id=kSKwP3v99dYCpg=PA256lpg=PA256dq=Ziady,+L.+and+Small,+N.+(2004).+Prevent+and+control+infectionsource=blots=DEOU4V_3gRsig=phk4sKUjV30cWcw7qv3Xo08Id1khl=ensa=Xei=yq5bVPGeGsr98AXShIKACAved=0CB0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepageq=Ziady%2C%20L.%20and%20Small%2C%20N.%20(2004).%20Prevent%20and%20control%20infectionf=false (Accessed: 6 November 2014) Zubay, G. (2005). Agents of bioterrorism. Google books [Online]. Available at: http://books.google.lk/books?id=AwkVgNPRnKoCdq=diagnosis+methods+ebola+Zubaysource=gbs_navlinks_s (Accessed 29 October 2014). Zuckerman, A. (2008). Principles and practice of clinical virology. Google books [Online]. Available at: http://books.google.lk/books?id=4il2mF7JG1sCpg=PA774lpg=PA774dq=Okware+SI,+Omaswa+FG,+Zaramba+S,+et+al.+An+outbreak+of+Ebola+in+Uganda.source=blots=NBElqYFkMRsig=o7MGwDL_xghUdwFQohFWtqj_TOohl=ensa=Xei=ZUEyVJC_G8aOuATxwoGoAQved=0CCMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepageq=An%20outbreak%20of%20Ebola%20in%20Ugandaf=false (Accessed 4 October 2014).
Saturday, July 20, 2019
My Sport It all started when I was about eleven or twelve years old. By that time, I was already used to being the tallest girl in class. I caught the attention of all my gym teachers and was about to become a goal to basketball coaches. The sport seemed cool, but something I had never thought about. Time went by and the coaches insisted I should play. I was finally persuaded. Ã¢â¬Å"Why not give it a try?Ã¢â¬ I thought. I went to camps, practices, a whole process, and learned to sympathize with the sport. Basketball came easy to me and after a while, I became a decent player. I continued to play through junior high school, but it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until high school that I realized it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t my sport. There, I found a whole diversity of sports, some of which I had never heard of. One day, the crew coach...
Friday, July 19, 2019
A. Introduction and Definition: Magnet therapy is an alternative treatment which has been gaining ground in recent years. Magnet therapy is related to biomagnetism which is a branch of biology that studies the effects of magnetism in living beings as well as magnetism and electromagnetism. Many experiments have been conducted in the world. Over time, practitioners have kept records of what has and has not worked. Precautionary measures are now known to use with magnet therapy. It has been known to promote magnet therapy as a very safe and effective treatment when used correctly. B. Historical Aspects and Background: The origin of biomagnetism started centuries ago by the people of India, China, the eastern Mediterranean basin, and Australian aborigines and native Africans. Around 200 B.C., the Greek physician Galen noted magnetism was being used for itÃ¢â¬â¢s purgative powers. A persian physician named Ali Abbas was using magnetism to treat "spasms" and "gout" around A.D. 1000. Also, in the 16th century, Paracelsus, an innovative Swiss physician claimed to cure "hernias, gout, and jaundice" through the use of magnets. To understand the history of biomagnetism, it is necessary to examine the earlier history of magnetism and electromagnetism. Only a few hundred years ago did electromagnetism emerge, but the knowledge of magnetism goes back to ancient times. Legends say that a shepard named Magus discovered a mineral that attracted the nails of his sandals as he crossed Mount Ida in Asia Minor about twenty-five hundred years ago. The mineral today is known as ma gnetite. Some sources say that the word "magnetism" comes from Magnesia, a city in Asia Minor where the stone can be found. It has been observed when a magnet is left free to spin, it always rests in the same position. In 1269, Pierre de Maricourt had differentiated the two poles. He called the poles "north" and "south." "North" was the pole that points to the geographic north pole and "South" the pole that points to the geographic south pole. Later, it was observed that opposite poles attract and same type poles repel. In this case, "North" the pole of magnet pointing to the geographic south and "South" the pole pointing to the geographic north. ... ...essages to the brain when stimulated. Nerve cells have a negative internal charge and a positive external charge unlike blood cells. When the north pole of a magnet is applied to the skin next to the nerve endings, the negative energy of the magnet and positive energy of the nerve cells attract each other. There are many more positive effects of magnet therapy that relate to the endocrine system, joints, muscles, and the blood. Personally, I have gone to massage therapy, for my back, as long as 6 months or so. I have had little to no relief at all. I have though about the use of magnet therapy quite a bit. If magnet therapy could be an alternative in treatment of my back, I would definitely have to say yes! Magnet therapy has many positive effects and more and more research is being conducted to this day. F. Bibliography: 1. Healing With Magnets, Gary Null, Ph.D. Carroll and Graf Publishers, Inc. 1998. 2. Magnet Therapy: The Gentle and Effective Way to Balance Body Systems, Ghanshyam Singh Birla and Colette Hemlin, Healing Arts Press, 1999. 3. Magnet Therapy: The Pain Cure Alternative, Ron Lawrence, M.D., Ph.D., Paul J. Rosch, M.D., F.A.C.P., and Judith Plowden
Digital Artists When we think of artists, we think of paint on canvas, or clay masterpieces, or beautiful, timeless drawings, but what do you think when you hear digital artists? The acceptance of digital art into the mainstream art community is a controversy that is slowly becoming history. The controversy is essentially that many people believe that the art is created by the computer, and not by the artist. Numerous art exhibits and shows do not allow digital art in just for that reason. This is a lack of understanding of how the art is created, because images can not be created unless there is a creator with an idea and that person has gone through the creative process just like a normal artist. When it comes to the history if digital art, it also is a controversy because many say that it has no history. This again can not be true because there were pioneers in the field of digital art just like main stream traditional art. Digital art from the beginning was rooted in military defense systems, and was its research centers were funded by the federal government. It is debated so much because the history dates back to only 1956. This is the date is given to the start of Computer Art. This is the decade where the first imaged processed photos and art animation. The first computer art competition was held in 1963 by the US journal Computers and Automation. Also in 1963 was the first computer generated film by Edward Zajec. From then on more and more competitions and exhibits sprung up from all over the world. Many organizations emerged such as EAT or Experiments in Art and Technology (1967), SIGGRAPH (Special Interest Group on Computer Graphics), The Computer Arts Soc iety, and CTG or Computer Techniqu... ...gital technology so that they can understand and fairly judge the great works of digital art. Works Cited ArtandCulture.com. 1999. Digital Art. 10 October 2003. DAM.org. Digital Art Museum- Technology Timeline. 20 October 2003. EZBoard.com. Acceptance of Digital Art in Exhibitions. 20 October 2003. Jesdanun, Anick. Ã¢â¬Å"Digital Art Gaining Acceptance.Ã¢â¬ South Bend Tribune. 10 December 2001. South Bend Tribune 2001. 20 October 2003. Scates, Brian. Ã¢â¬Å"Please Accept Me As Art.Ã¢â¬ Spark Online.com 2002. 12 October 2003.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
A Romantic as he was, William Blake created his rather simple songs as an opposition to the poetry the eighteenth-century poets tried to impose, the so called ornated word,poetry of beautiful words saying very little. Songs of Innocence and Experience are about the Ã¢â¬Å"two contrary states of the human soulÃ¢â¬ as Blake put it. To confirm this he wrote some of the poems of Innocence with their pairs in Experience. Such a pair is Ã¢â¬Å"The LambÃ¢â¬ from Innocence and Ã¢â¬Å"The TygerÃ¢â¬ from Experience. Ã¢â¬Å"The LambÃ¢â¬ consists of two stanzas, each one of them based on simple rhyming scheme like the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s songs. The first stanza poses the questions while the second one is left for the answers. The questions are for the lamb, the speaker, presumably a child, asks the animal who has made it. The whole description of the animal supposes a meek and good one, the use of soft vowels makes the perception stronger. The second stanza gives the answers, although obvious, they are given in the form of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s puzzle, showing a bit of naivete. After a bit of a puzzle-playing the answer is crystal clear, the creator of the lamb is God. With the lines Ã¢â¬Å"For he is called by thy name/For he calls himself a lambÃ¢â¬ Blake reminds the reader of the Bible and more specifically of Jes us, who after his Crucifixion becomes the Lamb of God. Following this, the lamb is a symbol of naÃ ¯ve innocence, also suffering one. Ã¢â¬Å"The TygerÃ¢â¬ is the Ã¢â¬Å"experiencedÃ¢â¬ poem of the pair. The lines Ã¢â¬Å"Did He smile His work to see?/Did He who made the lamb make thee?Ã¢â¬ may be considered a symbolic centre of the poem. The persona asks the tyger if his creator is the one who created the lamb. The questions are seeking an answer and at the same time are showing deep disbelieve, how can God who created the meek lamb create also the fierce tiger and frame his Ã¢â¬Å"fearful symmetryÃ¢â¬ . If innocence is naÃ ¯ve and suffering then experience, according to Ã¢â¬Å"The TygerÃ¢â¬ , whose eyes have burnt in Ã¢â¬Å"distant deeps or skiesÃ¢â¬ , should be dark and fierce having collected all the darkness Ã¢â¬Å"in the forests of the nightÃ¢â¬ as is presented the life of the grown-up people in Ã¢â¬Å"The TygerÃ¢â¬ . If Ã¢â¬Å"The TygerÃ¢â¬ from Experience is the opposite poem to Ã¢â¬Å"The LambÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"To TirzahÃ¢â¬ doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a particular opposite in Innocence, it may be considered as a single poem opposing the whole of Songs of Innocence. Tirzah is one of the five daughters of Zelophehad, also the name of the capital ofÃ Israel, which is in opposition with Jerusalem, the city of God. The first stanza begins with the well-known fact that Ã¢â¬Å"WhateÃ¢â¬â¢er is born of mortal birthÃ¢â¬ dies. And ends with the question Ã¢â¬Å"Then what have I to do with thee?Ã¢â¬ , it seems it is directed exactly to that mortal part of humans. The second stanza is a reminder of Genesis, the fall of Adam and Eve when looking for knowledge and their curse when drown out of Heaven, men to work with sweat on their foreheads and women to cry of pain while giving birth to their children. In the third stanza Tirzah proves out to be the mother of the Ã¢â¬Å"mortal partÃ¢â¬ of humans and thus mother of death. The persona of the poem seems to be a young man who is angry with his mother for giving him life that inevitably ends in death. The young man may also be afraid to break the bond with his mother and live in the world of experience on his own. The last stanza opposes life on earth whose Ã¢â¬Å"tongue is made of clayÃ¢â¬ and life in heaven whose symbol is Jesus and his crucifixion. Experience understands the simple rules of life that what is born dies and canÃ¢â¬â¢t accept them, while innocence accepts and amuses in everything even in perceiving experience. The bond between innocence and experience when judged from Ã¢â¬Å"To TirzahÃ¢â¬ seems to be the bond of a blissful student to his desperate teacher. Such blissful innocence is presented in the Ã¢â¬Å"IntroductionÃ¢â¬ of Songs of Innocence. The poem begins with a piperÃ¢â¬â¢s song, the persona sees a child on a cloud, an ordinary symbol of blissful innocence, the child/angel is enjoying the piperÃ¢â¬â¢s song, which in Blakean times is considered to be the purest of all. The child nearly orders the piper to Ã¢â¬Å"Pipe a song about a Lamb!Ã¢â¬ , innocence enjoys the song about another blissful innocent creature Ã¢â¬â the lamb. Experience in the form of the grown-up piper praises and at the same time amuses innocence. The bond between Ã¢â¬Å"the two contrary states of the human soulÃ¢â¬ is a mother-child relationship. Experience teaches innocence as the piper writes down in a book the songs he knows so that Ã¢â¬Å"Every child may joy to hear.Ã¢â¬ But the mother also protects her child, so does experience as is clearly seen from the poem Ã¢â¬Å"Holy ThursdayÃ¢â¬ . Children, the most common symbol of innocence, are walking two by two and Ã¢â¬Å"grey-headed beadlesÃ¢â¬ are leading them to St. PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s cathedral, experience protects innocence and leads it to a place where God will guide and protect it. In the second stanza of the poem innocence is a multitude, children are like Ã¢â¬Å"flowers of London townÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"multitudes of lambsÃ¢â¬ , innocence is being united with nature. Following the flow of thought innocence seems to glow with its divine image as is presented in Ã¢â¬Å"The Divine ImageÃ¢â¬ from Songs of Innocence. The first stanza of the poem states that Mercy, Pity, Peace and Love are the four most important virtues that every man prays to. The second stanza reveals that the virtues symbol of innocence and purity are God and human Ã¢â¬Å"His child and careÃ¢â¬ . Reading on the poem shows that man is made up of virtues and possesses the human form divine, the purest and Godly innocence. If innocence is Ã¢â¬Å"the human form divineÃ¢â¬ then what is experience and what have they to do with one another? Does Ã¢â¬Å"LondonÃ¢â¬ from Songs of Experience give the answer? Ã¢â¬Å"LondonÃ¢â¬ is symbol of fallen humanity, symbol of the dark face of the industrial revolution that BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s contemporaries so much prided on. The personaÃ¢â¬â¢s journey begins with Ã¢â¬Å"I wanderÃ¢â¬ , he walks through Ã¢â¬Å"each chartered streetÃ¢â¬ , in Blakean times charters were given to rich people as a permission to rule given city. A city, in our case London, may be chartered, but Blake uses irony when defining the river Thames as chartered because a river cannot be put under human rules. The whole city, even the river, look like prisoners thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why the persona can observe Ã¢â¬Å"marks of weakness, marks of woeÃ¢â¬ on every face he meets. From the first stanza his journey seems to be a sad walk through experience. In the second stanza the poet uses repetition in order to make the impact of his words stronger. He mentions manacles that were an ordinary thing to be seen on the hands of prisoners that were sent to Australia. But BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s manacles are Ã¢â¬Ëmind-forgedÃ¢â¬â¢, a symbol of moral rules and laws that restrict Ã¢â¬Å"civilizedÃ¢â¬ people. This image is also an allusion to RousseauÃ¢â¬â¢s statement that Ã¢â¬Å"Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains.Ã¢â¬ The third stanza gives more specific examples of weakness and woe. The image of the child chimney-sweeper crying is a symbol of the unlawful use of childÃ¢â¬â¢s labour; the second Ã¢â¬â the blackening church appalls every one, the church is blackening as a symbol of stagnation, injustice, wrongly used power of not helping those that most need its caress Ã¢â¬â the poor. And last but not least the sound of the hapless soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s sigh; BlakeÃ uses hyperbole in this particular image when describing that the sigh Ã¢â¬Å"Runs in blood down palace wallsÃ¢â¬ . Being a reminder of the French revolution the poet warns the king and the people who rule the Ã¢â¬Å"chartered streetsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the chartered ThamesÃ¢â¬ that the misfortunate British may rise following the example of their soul mates Ã¢â¬â the French. The action in the last stanza takes place at midnight, the time when all monsters come out to haunt the living, this is the time of full darkness, symbol of impurity. At midnight the young harlot is forced to sell her body in a society where money is God. Blake uses a rather strong oxymoron to outline her image, Ã¢â¬Å"marriage hearseÃ¢â¬ , there can never be such a thing or it can in a London with Ã¢â¬Å"chartered streetsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"blackening churchÃ¢â¬ ; her curse damns lost innocence that can never be returned. Ã¢â¬Å"LondonÃ¢â¬ has a simple AB rhyming scheme that is typical for nursery rhymes, its innocent representation is in ironic opposition with its content, exactly like London of Blakean time, it was considered the peak of civilization while from the inside it was rotting away. From Ã¢â¬Å"LondonÃ¢â¬ it looks like that the bond between innocence and experience is very narrow, to enter experience one just has to be aware of evil. Experience is also understanding and accepting death, most fearful of all experience. Ã¢â¬Å"The FlyÃ¢â¬ from Songs of Experience proves it. At first sight the poemÃ¢â¬â¢s theme is about destruction, the persona kills the fly; but as the speaker identifies with the fly in the third stanza he is also vulnerable to Ã¢â¬Å"some blind handÃ¢â¬ that may brush him away, the hand of the inevitable, of blind providence. The perspective of the persona killing the fly is turned a bit sideways with the act of the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s identification with the fly; his act of killing may be not aimed to the fly but to himself. The last two stanzas are the most enigmatic and at the same time most universal ones. The forth stanza toys with the idea that if Ã¢â¬Å"thought is lifeÃ¢â¬ meaning that knowledge is life and Ã¢â¬Å"the want of thought is deathÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â an allusion to the Bible, when Adam and Eve are repelled from Heaven for seeking knowledge, when leaving Heaven they leave innocence behind and enter experience where they learn of death. But the poet shows death as the lack of thought, the lack of life, he teaches us that the price for gaining experience is losing innocence but death may be the gate to achieving regained innocence, because if death is the lack of thought then it is the lack of experience meaningÃ that it is regained innocence. Experience also has its own unique form according to the Ã¢â¬Å"IntroductionÃ¢â¬ of Songs of Experience, its voice is the voice of the ancient bard who Ã¢â¬Å"present, past and future seesÃ¢â¬ , its ears have heard the Holy Word that is symbol of Jesus who Ã¢â¬Å"walked among the ancient treesÃ¢â¬ more than 2,000 years ago. The form of Innocence is presented in Ã¢â¬Å"Holy ThursdayÃ¢â¬ from Songs of Innocence. The most well-known symbol of Innocence is the child, on that ground children are presented in the first stanza of Ã¢â¬Å"Holy ThursdayÃ¢â¬ , children are walking two by two and beadles are leading them to St. PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s Cathedral, Experience is guiding Innocence to the cathedral were Innocence is to be protected by God himself. In the second stanza the children are multitude, they are like lambs and exactly then and there Innocence is united with nature. In the last stanza the children raise their voice to Heaven and the aged men, Experience, are still there to protect Innocence. Innocence is also symbol of new life being born as is presented in Ã¢â¬Å"The Echoing GreenÃ¢â¬ from Songs of Innocence. Ã¢â¬Å"SpringÃ¢â¬ in the first stanza of the poem is symbol of the new life, of new Innocence being born. The colour of Innocence, as is easy to be guessed, according to the poem is green. The second stanza presents happy old people, sitting under an oak tree, and laughing at the youthsÃ¢â¬â¢ games. They remember their own childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s games and their Innocence returns on the echoing green. The last stanza is no more cheerful, youth is tired and everyone is returning to their homes Ã¢â¬Å"like birds in the nestsÃ¢â¬ ; the echoing green is no more, it is darkening, like a haunting experience, like a date on which Innocence will come for the last time and be gone forever. Interesting connection between innocence and experience provide also the pair of poems Ã¢â¬Å"The Chimney-SweeperÃ¢â¬ from Songs of Innocence and the one from Songs of Experience. Ã¢â¬Å"The Chimney-SweeperÃ¢â¬ from Songs of Innocence is BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s most ironic poem if he ever intended to write such. In 18th century England the chimney-sweepers were little children, most often orphans orÃ from poor families. Such is the case with the persona of the poem, when his mother dies his father sells him to be a chimney-sweeper and dooms him to sure early death because the chimney-sweepers from that time lived until they were seven or eight years old and died most often of respiratory problems caused by the soot. That is the story of the child-persona told in the first stanza while he walks the streets and cries Ã¢â¬Å"Sweep, sweep, sweepÃ¢â¬ as a kind of commercial for his job. But the misspelling of the word is not by chance, the author chose to write Ã¢â¬Å"Weep, weep, weepÃ¢ â¬ because misery is the true occupation of the child Ã¢â¬â chimney-sweeper. The story goes on in the second stanza with little Tom Dacre. His head is Ã¢â¬Å"curled like a lambÃ¢â¬â¢s backÃ¢â¬ and that is allegory to another poem from Songs of Innocence Ã¢â¬Å"The LambÃ¢â¬ , like the lamb Tom is meek and innocent and he cries when his hair is shaved. The child-persona consoles him that when shaved the soot cannot spoil his white hair; so far innocence blinded Tom when it is Ã¢â¬Å"shavedÃ¢â¬ he could see the real world. So in the third stanza he is quiet and has a dream that thousands of sweepers are Ã¢â¬Å"locked in coffins of blackÃ¢â¬ . Knowing the hard lives of EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s 18th century child-chimney-sweepers the Ã¢â¬Å"coffins of blackÃ¢â¬ are the chimneys that buried the children. The forth stanza is left for the angel with the bright key who comes and sets all the chimney-sweepers free. But the only Angel who has such a key is the Angel of Death. Tom dreams that all are running down a green plain, washing in the river Ã¢â¬â all these are symbols of innocence. Later on the Angel tells Tom that if he is a good boy and does his work well heÃ¢â¬â¢ll have God for his father, meaning that heÃ¢â¬â¢ll return to innocence but only after his death. The children chimney-sweepers are doomed to have entered experience and the bad part of it too early and innocence is for them only a dream. Ã¢â¬Å"The Chimney-SweeperÃ¢â¬ from Songs of Experience opposes the one from Songs of Innocence. Ã¢â¬Å"A little black thingÃ¢â¬ enters the scene, the child-chimney-sweeper has become one with the soot, he has even obtained its colour. As in Songs of Innocence the perssona cries Ã¢â¬Å"weepÃ¢â¬ instead of Ã¢â¬Å"sweepÃ¢â¬ , it sound is part of a melody whose notes are Ã¢â¬Å"the notes of woeÃ¢â¬ . The second stanza begins with Ã¢â¬Å"BecauseÃ¢â¬ , the child-chimney-sweeper feels that because he was happy upon the heath and smiled his parents have given him the clothes of death and give him to it. The persona is angry, he is noÃ longer innocent because anger is feeling of experience, so he enters experience angry. His parents think they have done him no injury and are gone to praise the Lord who cannot save the child from singing his Ã¢â¬Å"notes of woeÃ¢â¬ . In the last line of the poem God is frankly accused of being an alliance with church and state who Ã¢â¬Å"made up a heaven of our miseryÃ¢â¬ . Heaven is no more a consoling place for the child-chimney-sweeper who has entered experience it is a place made up of the misery of his fellow Ã¢â¬Å"black thingsÃ¢â¬ . BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s Songs prove his statement that innocence and experience are Ã¢â¬Å"the two contrary states of the human soulÃ¢â¬ , the relationship between the two is always opposition: innocence is meek and suffering while experience is fierce and dark but experience accepts and understands life as it is while innocence amuses in everything, it is united with nature. The Godly innocence is the human form divine. Sometimes the bond between innocence and experience is very narrow, to enter experience one has to be aware of evil, experience is also understanding and accepting death. The most well-known form of experience is the grown-up while innocence is the little child, the colour of innocence is green, while those of experience is black. And last but not least the relationship between innocence and experience is that they are both states of the human soul but to the first one is given the blissful life, to the second Ã¢â¬â the angry existence.
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
Is crossroads Mad (His Indecisive Soliloquies)? A quarrel occurs over whether critical points demeanour displays craziness or planned acuwork force when deciding on his vindicate on magnate Claudius. Prince hamlets feeling unfortunately spirals bring out of hand when his tiro mysteriously dies. Suspicion of the possible shoot of the might rises when his mother immediately marries world-beater Claudius. hamlet pay offs extremely quizzical believe that his father did non die of hit and concludes that King Claudius could be held as a suspect. He contemplates his plans on vindicate on m whatsoever occasions al superstar, in literature, cognize as soliloquies. major purpose f Shakespeares use of Soliloquies in hamlet is to provide hitchs of the prince at crucial moments in the kind of his experience(Newell 134) His pursuit to go up out officially causes crossroadss change of deportment, a untamed behaviour in which he removes he deeds on purpose. Yet galore(p ostnominal) in the written report claim crossroadss bloom decisions, sudden hatred towards Ophelia, and the killing of Polonius, out out of a mental in satisfyingity he developed naturally aft(prenominal)ward his fathers decease. The reader makes their confess opinions when observing how he coiffures by himself reflecting on his journey towards r unconstipatedge. settlement progresses from indecisiveness and confusion when use the matters of revenge towards King Claudius observed in do 2, depiction 2 actuate 3, Scene 1 and Act 4 Scene 2. This is due to his religious ethical motive some meters, and other times hes so blinded by revenge that he wants to i the king when hes in a government agency of unholiness. for the first timely, in act 2, burst 2, village shows vengeful confusion demonstrating himself as an avenger. The position begins with Gertrude inviting Guildenstern and Rosencrantz to Elsinore in hopes to help critical point be restored from his sudden chan ge of behaviour.Since they have pornographic up with him, they grapple his per give-and-takeality the best, thus juncture, Gertrudes similarly much changed son (2. 2. 36) contains fondness solely for his comrades, opening the provide for Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to investigate secretly. settlement looks pleased slightly(predicate) the arrival of his best fri abolishs, even so breaks skeptical over their argue for the sudden appearance. When they claim they came merely to revisit crossroads, he purely declares that he discerns the king and the queen displace for them. After the players per organize, giving an enlightening vernacular regarding the go under of Troy, settlement leaves his comrades, standing al sensation.Here, he formulates a plan to find out whether Claudius thus killed his father. Forcing Claudius to watch The Murder of Gonzaga, a play which may r may not resemble Claudiuss throw very life, small town provide detective his reaction of pot ential guilt written on his face- proof that Claudius did indeed hit the king. small towns fourth monologue may be seen as a link between the unrestrained inflammation f his previous monologue, subsequently(prenominal) his get together with the ghost and the level of intellectuality of the to be or not to be soliloquy before long after it. (Newell 56) In other terminology, this soliloquy could be considered as a stick with connecting with chaos, his previous soliloquy, and intuitiveness, his subsequent soliloquy.Unfortunately, Hamlet displays inconsequence throughout his soliloquy. He uses contradicting analogies showing inadequacy of commitment and certainty to act n revenge. line reads that he prevails with eyes selfsame(prenominal)(p) carbuncles, the Hellish Pyrrhus old grandsire Priam seeks. So fit you. (2. 2. 466-468) Hamlet relates himself to Pyrrhus. Therefore, if Hamlet is equal Pyrrhus, accordinglyce Priam is in avoidably an analogue for Claudius against whom Hamlet seeks revenge. (Newell 59) If Hamlet committed to his quest for revenge, he would that his commitment by similar analogies bread and justter his classification as the avenger. Instead, he then propels himself in the opposite direction, by apply words peasant slave for himself and kindles villain in the rhetoric delegacy (Newell k). This excessively creates a controversy f prospective. First he calls himself a revenger like Pyrrhus. tho it comes from Aeneas pint f examine creating kindness f Hamlet (Newell 58) In addition, Hamlets lineation he reveals in his soliloquy subsists as a flawed plan.Firstly, Hamlet claims The strong Pyrrhus, like the Hyr croupian beast (2. 2. 453). He compares Pyrrhus as a Hyrcanian beast a splay because it reveals Hamlets subconscious views of Pyrrhus as an avenger acting assessmentlessly with bestial ferocity (Newman 57) Secondly, Hamlets plan to catch the scruples of the king (2. 2. 610) is t trap the king by bringing out an emotional response. he plans to catch Claudius connecting emotionally with an impostor who plays killer, therefore revealing Claudius as the killer.However, this mentation starts to blend unsound because Claudius feeling about the play could never have become a reliable source f truth t killing Hamlets father. Many connect with movies because of the winsome actors and actresses, the angle of lights, and the overall atmosphere the handler creates without actually loss through the same situation the character did in the movie. unrestrained responses should not be champions ticket to killing. Obviously, Hamlets firmness I am but pale north-north-west when the wind is southerly I know a hawk from a carpenters saw (2. 2. 81-382) could prove itself at such a crucial moment, questioning the truthfulness or reliability in this quote. If Hamlet chose to act mad at nerve-wrecking times in his life, then he would have morose off his performance and demonstrated sanity and intrusive ness when al peerless, developing a prodigious plan that may alter his life. Consequently, Hamlets soliloquy reveals carelessness and il reasonableness, force his reflections n a negative assembly line upon his act towards revenge. Secondly, Act 3 of Hamlet opens with Guildenstern and Rosencrantz meeting with Gertrude and Claudius, discussing Hamlets behavior.The tercet has come to the conclusion that no one can explain his bizarre change, so Claudius dismisses the other troika, saying that he and Polonius depute to spy on Hamlets confrontation with Ophelia. While Polonius and the king laissez passer a1round the lobby, they hear Hamlet coming and square up to hide behind the tapestry. Not spying their presence, Hamlet wrestles with the decision to commit felo-de-se. To be or not to be, that is the ques2tion (3. 1. 56) He believes self-annihilation will end the pain of his being for good. Between the sick soul and the companionship and of love here are interstellar spac es that divide Hell from Heaven. (Bloom 56) This means to the commonplace eye, Heaven and Hell stand enormously far a commission from each other. However, when considering into accounting a question like this, one can make the gap seem much smaller. Although the consideration of self-destruction from any character is daunting at the very least, Hamlet still approaches the question with eloquence and dianoetic thinking. Initially, Hamlet attempts to pose one such a question in a rational, logical systemal way. He ponders wherefore or how the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune (3. 1. 58) can be borne out since life after death is so uncertain.Ha1mlet considers that suicide would not seem as big of a deal if one knows his death or her afterlife. because Ha1mlet believes one does not know what happens after death, he or she would quite a consent those ill we have, then fly to others that we know not of (3. 1. 81-82) Many struggle with this come to the fore of what happens after people die, and even groundwork some(prenominal) decisions upon it. For Hamlet to recognize this irresolution as a significant circumstance in the idea of suicide rather than refinement some sort of constant pain, shows complete logical cerebrate.In fact, by the time most conclude that their life essential end, they too senile have become already mentally unstable and worried to even formulate why suicide remains a disputed issue. Hamlet explains that if everyone knew about his or her afterlife, most suicides will indeed occur and the issue would not seem contentious. Furthermore, Hamlet shows his intelligence in depicting his decision about suicide in his to be or not to be soliloquy. Although at this moment, Hamlet realizes that many choose life over death because of the inability to know ones afterlife, the speech remains a duncical contemplation about the nature and reason for death.After posing this complex question and question about the nature of the great sl eep, Hamlet goes on to list many sufferings which men are prone to in the center of lifes rough course of life, which makes it seem as though he is moving toward death yet, again. By the end of this soliloquy, however, he finally realizes But the discernment of something after death, the undiscovered country form whose bourn to no traveler returns, puzzles the will, and makes us rather bear those ills we have. (3. 1. 78-81) Additionally, the way Hamlet even poses the question of suicide as a matter of philosophical debate shows intuition.He does not express himself at all during the soliloquy, never uses the words I or me in the entire speech, compass it up as a controversial question upon which people can part their opinions. When we shuffled off this mortal coil essential give us pause (3. 1. 67) when he himself might his quietus make (3. 1. 75) cushiony you now (3. 1. 88) Instead, Hamlet purposely uses words such as we, us, you, he, and his to disguise what he is rattling thinking about, acting carefully but very smartly. His words at the end of the scene are indeed wild and whirling (Bloom 87) towards Ophelia. As a result, Hamlet shows confusion to end his life or not, yet in a very intellectual manner, presenting his saneness to the audience. Lastly, act 4 scenes 4, focuses back to Hamlets pursuit to revenge Claudius officially. Hamlet encounters with the Norwegian captain who shows forcibleness and courage in taking action. This discourages Hamlet and his commitment to revenge. Hamlet stands awestruck by the willingness ofFortinbras devotion and nada towards his entire army. When left alone, Hamlet the lesson doubt of Fortinbras deed, but his dynamism affect him to a point of a firm decision on one come through attempt. Here he analyzes his attention yet forcefulness like Fortinbras and his patch of land, toward King Claudius. Actually, His previous two soliloquies provide elucidative context for the defective working of his mind in the pre sent one, for his reason is in fact, no less subjected by dearest here than in the other two. (Newell 134) Here, Hamlet utters great emotion towards his stagnant plans on revenge and expresses them in this soliloquy. To begin with, Hamlets logical reasoning becomes seeming in his last soliloquy because he develops dramatically indeed in the play-The conquering of Hamlets reason by his passion for revenge (Newell 133) For one, Shakespeare reestablishes Hamlets preoccupation with revenge as tragic.It subsists as a Necessary soliloquy after accidentally killing Polonius by error in pursuit of revenge different the last two, people sym passize with him and view him tragically. (Newell 134) Sympathizing with Hamlets confusion and trouble compels the reader to classify him as a logical person, not as a mad man, who needs deport when waiver through a very disturb time in his life. In sexual congress to this, it helps that Hamlet uses the language of Elizabethan spiritualty of th e mind, the engaging of thought and unlike before, determination him repulsive by the close scene with Gertrude, hide and seek with school fellows and the hearing with Claudius. (Newell 135) Next, the audience believes he displays logical reasoning because his thinking and reasoning correspond. He reveals overjealous rage while simultaneously, finally supply his overdue act of revenge on Claudius. My thoughts be blood, or be vigour worth (4. 4. 66). In other words, Hamlet exclaims my thoughts be blooming(a), my deeds be bloody also, giving some consistency with his preparation. His logical thinking steer him onto the right path of revenge.Moreover, Hamlet exposes his brilliance through his soliloquy of discursive reasoning, in a way that heightens ones tragic view of the character before he leaves (Newell 133) Firstly, his soliloquy makes him less vengeful and more tolerant for an opportunity for revenge (Newell 135) showing person-to-person growth in the matter. He knows r evenge lies as his tho option, yet or else of rushing it with a quick instinctive plan like before he takes a different approach and develops patience revolving around the issue. Of thinking too just on the event- A thought which, quartered hath but one part wisdom and even three parts coward. (4. 4. 41-43) This means, if he thinks too long and critically, he will become anxious and a coward, but if he waits patiently and stop the rash aggressiveness clouding his mind, revenge will fall into place. Secondly, the reoccurrence of beast and discourse and reason in a cluster brings to mind the forceful phrase a beast that wants discourse of reason from the first soliloquy (Newell 133) This presents Hamlet intelligence, relating his last soliloquy with his first because a confused madman could not possibly re subdivision what he reflected upon by himself, many times ago, this gives Hamlet some reference book of existing as normal.Therefore, Hamlet shows logical thinking and intuit iveness in his last soliloquy, ending his reflections on a positive stemma on his pursuit towards revenge, also presenting himself as not a completely crazy man. Hamlet progresses from indecisiveness and confusion to logic when handling the matters of revenge towards King Claudius observes in Act 2, Scene 2 Act 3, scene 1 and Act 4, Scene 2 soliloquies. The opinions on where he really developed a mental disturbance if he played it off towards only his friends, remains debatable for in three main soliloquies he acts either advised or cultivated.An act or not, cryptograph should judge someone after going through a loss like Hamlets. Even if ones behaviour changed for the worse after a put ups death, many should sympathize and support him or her through his or her loss. A loss of a close family member is one of the most difficult situations one goes through. One must remember that everyone is a unique individual. Therefore, many cope with the calamity of death differently.Works C ited Bloom, Harold. The Embassy of Death An Essay on Hamlet. Hamlet. 1990 ed. Print. Lamb, Sidney ed. Shakespeares Hamlet. Hoboken Wiley Publishing, Inc. 2000. Print. Levin, Harry. Interrogation, Doubt, Irony Thesis, Antithesis, Synthesis. Modern vital View William Shakespeare The Tragedies. 1959 ed. Print. Newell, Alex. Passion and Reason. The Soliloquies in Hamlet 1935 ed. Print. Newell, Alex. The mind Oerthrown Reason Pandering Will. The Soliloquies in Hamlet. 1927 ed. Print.