Saturday, August 31, 2019
The narrative elements of literature are crucial when writing a story as they are what raises the story above being a line of strung together sentences and give the story meaning. It is especially important to have a clear idea of these elements when wring short stories because, unlike novels, the writer is only given a small amount of space to get his/her point across. By reading literature and searching for these narrative elements one can get a true feeling for their importance to the story and improve their own writing. Recently I have had the pleasure of reading the short story Ã¢â¬Å"Country LoversÃ¢â¬ , by Nadine Gordimer and in this paper I will explain how she used the narrative elements of plot, theme and point of view to enhance her story and make it a richer experience. The story Ã¢â¬Å"Country LoversÃ¢â¬ written by Nadine Gordimer is a story about love and race. This story starts with a childhood love and grows into adulthood. Ã¢â¬Å"Country LoversÃ¢â¬ is a story that deals with a forbidden love between a black woman named Thebedi and a white man whose name is Paulus. Thebedi gets pregnant by Paulus which is not allowed in the 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s and Paulus did not know about this pregnancy. Thebedi decides to get married after Paulus leaves for collage and the man she marries accepts the child as his own. After Paulus returns and finds out about the pregnancy the child mysteriously dies. In W. R. ClugstonÃ¢â¬â¢s book, The Journey Into Literature he defines plot as Ã¢â¬Å"a dynamic element in fiction, a sequence of interrelated, conflicting actions and events that typically build to a climax and bring about a resolutionÃ¢â¬ (Clugston, 2010, p. 5. 1). This is a story of a romance between a white man and a black woman who discover their love is restricted by the law, which is troublesome for them both because they love each other deeply and in the end this restriction ends in tragedy. In W. R. ClugstonÃ¢â¬â¢s book, The Journey Into Literature, he also describes how to identify the theme in a story: Ã¢â¬Å"To identify a storyÃ¢â¬â¢s theme itÃ¢â¬â¢s necessary to look beyond the plot. The plot tells you what happens in a story, but the theme tells you what the story is aboutÃ¢â¬ (Clugston, 2010, p. 7. 1). The theme of the story helps the story evolve and come to life. The theme of this particular story is love and race and as I pointed out earlier the race part of the theme is a white man falls in love with a black woman. Even though there is so much going on in this the overall theme to this story is love, specifically a forbidden love. Now let talk about the point of view of the story Ã¢â¬Å"Country LoversÃ¢â¬ . Cluston defines point of view as, Ã¢â¬Å"Point of view refers to who tells the storyÃ¢â¬âhow the action is presented to the reader. When you read a story, you are sensing everything in it through the eyes of the narrator. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to remember that the narrator, whether a character inside the story or one looking on from outside the action, is a voice invented by the author for the purposes of the storyÃ¢â¬ (Clugston, 2010, p. 5. 1). The point of view in this story is thirdÃ¢â¬âperson omniscient. This means that the narrator is not a character in the story and we are reading the story from the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s and not the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s view. The omniscient part of the point of view is the narrator is helping us to experience the feelings of the characters. Point of view has so much impact on the story because it gives us the feeling of the story. The article Ã¢â¬Å"Country LoversÃ¢â¬ explains why the third person narrative is essential to this story: Ã¢â¬Å"It [Ã¢â¬ ¦] used third person because then we get a neutral point of the story, and we donÃ¢â¬â¢t natural[y] take side[s] with one of themÃ¢â¬ ( Ã¢â¬Å"Country LoversÃ¢â¬ , 2012,). If someone writes a story in a first person you are getting everything from the character s point of view and a person reads what they see, feel, and hear. This will change the story dramatically because people donÃ¢â¬â¢t know if what they see is real or not. It is the character who makes people feels the way someone does. As for third person the narrator tells us what is really going on in the story. People know what the truth is and what is not. When someone gets to read a story in third person they get the whole perspective. All of the literary elements help a story come together. If someone does not have all the parts of the story such as plot, theme, tone and point of view then the story will be lacking. The plot of the story lays everything out what is going to happen, the theme of the story tells you what kind of story it is going to be, the tone determines how the story will be told (Clugston, 2010, p. 5. 3), and the point of view can change everything. These elements are all critical in turning words on a page into literature and if you take even one piece away even the great works of history would be reduced to nothing. I. B. singer said it best when he said, Ã¢â¬Å"A story to me means a plot where there is some surprise. Because that is how life is Ã¢â¬â full of surprisesÃ¢â¬ (Singer, 2001).
Friday, August 30, 2019
Introduction:The technological sweetening refering to measurement and information transmittal has led to more inclusive public presentation and Secure characteristic of the patient monitoring merchandises. In the earlier period, the taking merchandises manufactured by medical device makers are chiefly those for individual parametric quantity measuring. Nowadays nevertheless multi-parameter patient proctors are more extensively and normally used in our infirmary system. Multi parametric quantity Patient proctor is usage for critical physiological marks of the patient to convey the critical information. Therefore patient proctor has ever been busying a really important place in the filed of medical devices. The uninterrupted betterment of engineerings non merely helps us set out the critical physiological marks to the medical forces but besides simplifies the measuring and as a consequence addition the monitoring effectivity and now a yearss patient proctor is really flexible and it can supervise multiple physiological Signals.CLINICAL USED IN HOSPITAL:The patient proctors are normally used in some clinical countries such as ICU, CCU, operation room and exigency room because the proctor can supply many physiological parametric quantities of the patient to medical forcesPhysical PARAMETERS OF PATIENT MONITORSSome of physiological mark I mention in below are as follows.Electro Cardio Graph ( ECG )Respiration RateHeart Rate ( HR ) .Non-Invasive Blood Pressure ( NIBP )Oxygen Saturation in Blood ( SpO2 )Invasive Blood Pressure ( IBP )Temperature TEMPELECTRO CARDIO GRAPH:The ECG proctors classify little electromotive forces of about 1 millivolts that appear on the tegument as a consequence of cardiac gesture. Three/five electrodes prearranged in standard constellations called leads are positioned on the tegument to feel these electromotive forces. At lease two electrodes are required for an ECG lead ; a 3rd electrode is used as a mention to cut down electrical intervention. Each lead presents a bosom, Producing ECG wave form P waves, QRS composite, and T moving ridges vary in amplitude and mutual opposition. The signals from the different leads provide the heart specialist with a complete presentation of the electrical activity of the bosom, including the Heart rate, which is interpreted as the R~R Interval. The timing and wave form of ECG Provide Information on whether the patient Ã¢â¬Ës bosom rate is characterized by arrhythmia or other altered maps necessitating intervention.Parameter FOR RESPIRATION Rate:The method for usage for Respiratory rate by the technique of electric resistance pneumography. Pass a low current with high-frequency bearer signal between two ECG electrodes side of the chest wall the electric resistance of the lungs alterations as the lungs expand and contract and as the volume of air in the lungs alterations. The alteration in electric resistance creates a alteration in electromotive force across the bearer signal, which is interpret as breathe and from this phenomenal manner we get respiration rate of a forces.NON-INVASIVE AND INVASIVE BLOOD PRESSURE:Non Invasive Blood Pressure ( NIBP ) :Blood force per unit area proctors by and large measure arterial Pressure, This is produced by the contractions of the bosom and continually alterations over cardiac rhythm. Three blood force per unit area values, articulated in millimetres of quicksilver above so atmospheric pressure.Systolic force per unit area is the maximal rhythm force per unit area occurs during ventricular contraction. Diastolic force per unit area is the minimal rhythm force per unit area, happening during the ventricle Ã¢â¬Ës make fulling stage between contractions of bosom chamber. Arterial force per unit area is the average value of the blood force per unit area over the cardiac rhythm.Invasive Blood Pressure ( IBP ) :Invasive blood force per unit area is measured by agencies of a catheter insert straight into the circulatory system. Pressure transducer connected to the catheter converts the mechanical force exerted by the blood into an electrical signal by this mean of technique we can acquire the IBP value.Parameter FOR OXYGEN SATURATION OF THE BLOOD ( SPO2 ) :Oxygen impregnation technique is based on the soaking up of Pulse blood O to ruddy and infrared visible radiation by agencies of utilizing finger detector and SpO2 mensurating unit. Electronic transducer in finger detector converts the pulsation ruddy and infrared visible radiation modulates pulse blood O into electrical signal. By this agencies of technique we calculated value of SpO2.Parameter FOR TEMPERATURE Detection:Temperature of the organic structure is measured by agencies of a thermal resistor investigation. This investigation is made by semiconducting material whose opposition alterations with temperature. By the agencies of temperature alteration get the accurate temperature Value.STANDARD MODULE of PATIENT MONITOR:In footings of its functionality, the proctor is made up of following Faculties:Application FacultyMain Processing ModuleMan-machine interface ModuleLAN, WLAN, Bluetooth, RJ45 Connector, USB Port EtcPower supply ModuleParameter Measuring Part:Patient Monitor mensurating the physiological signals of ECG, RespirationNon-invasive blood force per unit area ( NIBP ) , Oxygen impregnation of the blood ( SpO2 ) , Temperature ( TEMP ) , Invasive blood force per unit area ( IBP ) , cardiac end product ( CO ) , CO and Anesthetic gas ( GAS ) . In this Measuring portion it can transform physiological signals to electrical signals, and procedure and reassign the values, wave forms and dismay information to Main Board, and so expose them by Interface Board.Main Control Part:Main board consists of Interface board and Core board. It has CPU/memory, show circuit web circuit and I/O interface. Main board of the integrated board is used to drive man-machine interface, manage parametric quantity measuring and supply other specific maps to the user such as constellation storage, wave form and informations callback, etc.Interface Part:The man-machine interfaces are board consists of Screen show, Recorder, Speaker, Indicator, Keys and knobs. The high-resolution show Screen is the most primary end product interface, exposing real-time current informations and recorded informations of different patients, Speaker gives bosom round tone and audio dismay Indicator provides extra information about power supplyPower Supply Part:Power supply is an of import portion of the system, dwelling of power board, power patchboard Battery and fanDifferent Auxiliary Partss:RJ45 online upgrade port is available on the proctor, which allows the service applied scientist to upgrade the system package without needfully opening the enclosure of the proctor. This larboard connexion is for usage as Internet map
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Sexual Harassment Case Study - Essay Example Therefore, the decision that she took is subjected to discussion so as to reveal the appropriate way forward. Ordinarily, Helen does not want to disclose the issue the University council due to personal reasons. This is because she fears that the information may blow like wind and she may be the subject of discussion across the campus. This may bring trauma and she will be a laughing stock since she is a member of the campus sorority. This may also affect her performance in the classroom. Helen decides to report to the counseling service that is staffed by the University psychologists; here she believes that the information will not be disclosed. Legally, the clinical psychologists are bound by the Universities policies due to the fact they signed the article of association with the institution to reveal all the sexual harassment cases. It is therefore wise for them to remain faithful to their employer. However, this should be done within the clients-patient privilege of confidentiality. Professionally, the clinical psychologists are secret agents and that is why Helen resolved to them. In the course of counseling therapy, Helen should disclose all her victimization and any other information that appertains to the sexual harassment. The psychologists having undergone thorough training should be in a position to explain the importance of revealing the information to the University and the importance of stopping the person in advance. However, they should assure Helen that the information will not be mishandled because they are secret agents. They are trained and therefore should perpetuate the policy of client-patient confidentiality. The clinical psychologists are mitigates of problems and therefore should report the incident to the University. This is because Helen was assaulted twice which implies that the character in question is a serious perpetrator of sexual harassment and has some element of
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Payroll System and Internal Control - Essay Example aintain a list of the names, addresses and necessary information among others especially of the employees working within the organisation (Lambert, 2005). The importance of maintaining a payroll system lies in keeping a track upon certain specific data especially of the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ which include their salary and incentive structure, pension plans, union membership status and taxes along with the method of calculation regarding the pays of the employees by taking into consideration the available employee data. Payroll systems are mainly implemented by using different software in order to calculate the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ net pay from various deductions according to the norms and policies of a particular organisation (Mohammed & et. al., 2007) In relation to payroll system, payroll records are usually used or implemented in order to keep a proper record regarding the hours worked by the employees in an organisation on a monthly basis. Apart from the payroll records, a payroll ledger is also used in relation to payroll system. A payroll ledger is a kind of a table that shows the calculated pays of the employees along with the month in which they earned the pay (Mohammed & et. al., 2007) In relation to payroll system, an internal control can be regarded as Ã¢â¬Å"a procedure of control and checking various levels of management in terms of financial and non-financial actions or operations of a particular business within an organisation in order to make sure that the business actions or operations are conducted successfullyÃ¢â¬ (Trenerry, 1999). The internal control of a business within an organisation also focuses towards the procedure of management decision making along with meeting all appropriate legal procedures that eventually leads towards the improvement of any business organisations (Hightower, 2008). The importance of internal control within an organisation lies in a few of the factors that include attaining successful business operations, controlling the business
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Compare and contrast disparate treatment and disparate impact - Essay Example In all disparate treatment cases, Ã¢â¬Å"whether the issue is the truth or falsity of the employer's reason for its action, or the co-existence of legitimate and illegitimate motives, whether the plaintiff puts on direct or circumstantial evidence, or both, the issue at the liability stage is simply whether the plaintiff has shown, by a preponderance of the evidence, that discrimination was a motivating factor in the employment decision.Ã¢â¬ (Drachsler, 2005, p.230) The Civil Rights Act of 1991, further extended these provisions and consolidated the list of prohibitions. But the application of Disparate Treatment theory to any given case is never straight-forward, for management decisions are based upon so many factors, with prejudice and discrimination (if any) often playing out in subtle and indirect ways. Judge Magnuson elaborated on 1991 amendments thus: Ã¢â¬Å"Absent from the statute is the requirement that discrimination be a "substantial" factor, a "but-for" factor, or the necessary and sufficient cause of the employment decision. Instead, Congress unambiguously required that discrimination be "a" motivating factor in the employment decision.
Monday, August 26, 2019
Pros and cons of outsourcing IT security Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words
Pros and cons of outsourcing IT security - Essay Example In this paper IT related outsourcing shall be dealt with in relation to various pros and cons that it has on a big company. Proponents of this mode of operations have put forth quite a number of the advantages that befall a major company. They have argued that for contemporary management the question should not be on whether to outsource or not but how much to outsource as IT related functions are many and some may pose huge challenge or more security risk than others. The following are some of the major advantages that a major company will face: A large companyÃ¢â¬â¢s IT department is usually huge and having many projects to run. At times these departments are regarded as contributing to the organisation less than they consume. Huge IT departments are cumbersome to operate and outsourcing will ensure that the company is able to operate in a better way than before as argued by Frank (2009). Outsourcing firms also offer consultancy on how to best handle internal controls and in this case in relation to IT related operations thereby in the end ensuring that the company is in a better position to control its IT functions. Outsourcing in many cases acts as a cost cutting measure and with the current trend for many large companies to go the downsizing way, it has become a popular avenue. Outsourcing leads to a company needing less staff, less space and time says Tho (2005). This in totality brings efficiency in the general operations of the company. A large firm will most likely refer its IT functions to a highly competent vendor thereby ensuring high quality IT services. This high quality is coupled with lower costs as bulk contracts attract better contractual deals. The IT sector is one that is quite volatile and as time passes new technologies emerge. These advancements at times can be quite rapid that the company may not be in a position to adopt it as fast. This may be related to financial constrains or
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Violent Video Games are Harmful on Teenagers - Research Paper Example Before, parents worried about the presence of danger in their surroundings. Nowadays, their problems have come home. There are now the dangers of the vast availability of violent news, movies and the current highly debated violent video games. Video games are not only available to adults but to children and teenagers as well. They are easily sold and bought online and for parents whose only dream is to provide for their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, who work hard and not spend enough time with their children; such situation becomes a threat to their family. One might ask why this should become a concern to parents and the community as a whole. As human beings, it is the responsibility of every individual to ensure a safe environment. Although one could not indeed eliminate all the dangers in the society, minimizing them is the most feasible remedy for a safe and peaceful world. One means of doing this is to ban all violent video games not only among children but also among teenagers becau se exposure to violence in something they enjoy encourages them to be violent. Violent video games are harmful on teenagers. There area a lot of arguments on whether video games are harmful on teenagers or not and this paper aims to prove that they are indeed harmful. What are violent video games in the first place? According to Liptak, the law defines them as those Ã¢â¬Å"in which the range of options available to a player includes killing, maiming, dismembering or sexually assaulting an image of a human beingÃ¢â¬ in a way that is Ã¢â¬Å"patently offensive,Ã¢â¬ appeals to minorsÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"deviant or morbid interestsÃ¢â¬ and lacks Ã¢â¬Å"serious literary, artistic, political or scientific valueÃ¢â¬ (nytimes.com). Justice Antonin Scalia seems to ridicule such definition with his statements, Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s a deviant violent video game? As opposed to what? A normal violent video game? Some of the GrimmÃ¢â¬â¢s fairy tales are quite grim, are you going to ban the m, too?Ã¢â¬ (Liptak). Sure, the justice has a point however there are still a lot to consider about video games as compared to fairy tales and movies. Looking at the problem as it is can indeed seem to be simple but careful consideration will prove that this issue is not just a question about reading or seeing violence. First, as Justice Stephen G. Breyer said, Ã¢â¬Å"Common sense should allow the government to help parents protect children from games that include depictions of Ã¢â¬Ëgratuitous, painful, excruciating, torturing violence upon small children and womenÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Laptik). Before computers and video games, arguments have been about childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s exposure to violent television. Some researchers believe that a steady diet of violent television may change a childÃ¢â¬â¢s standards about violence- the child comes to see violence as more acceptable, more appropriate, and more prevalent in daily life (Bootzin, Bower, Zajone & Hall, 442). Observational learning h as such a great effect on children that the violence seen expressed by people, compounded by the violence seen on television, makes violence seem like a normal, daily affair. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s perception can be distorted by what he sees. Ã¢â¬Å"The significance of observational learning is highlighted by studies of the effects of televised violence. For example, the amount of violent content watched on television by eight-year-olds predicts aggressiveness in these children even fifteen years laterÃ¢â¬ (Bernstein, Penner, Stewart, & Roy, 697). These are very significant in the study of the effects of violent video gam
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Explain the concept of time, value of money, and give some examples. Explain difference in ways to calculate FTEs and explain - Research Paper Example For instance, you can invest your dollar for one year at a 6% annual interest rate and accumulate $1.06 at the end of the year.Ã You can say that theÃ future valueÃ of the dollar is $1.06 given a 6%Ã interest rateÃ and a one-yearÃ period. It follows that theÃ present valueÃ of the $1.06 you expect to receive in one year is only $1. A key concept of TVM is that a single sum of money or a series of equal, evenly-spaced payments or receipts guaranteed in the future can be converted to an equivalent value today.Ã Conversely, you can determine the value to which a single sum or a series of future payments will grow to at some future date. You can calculate the fifth value if you are given any four of: Interest Rate, Number of Periods, Payments, Present Value, and Future Value.Ã FTEs FTEs are basically the full time equivalents and help in analyzing the work done in hours according to the number of laborers employed. Efficiency indicators for benchmarking frequently require a benchmarking health unit to provide the number of FTEs involved in a particular activity. This is not a problem where programs are specialized, i.e. where full and part time staff is assigned to specific activities.
Friday, August 23, 2019
Literature Review - Transformational Leadership - Essay Example In his discussion on political leaders, Burns defined transformational leadership as a process wherein leaders and followers mutually Ã¢â¬Å"promote each other to higher levels of morality and motivation (Jandaghi Matin & Farjami, 2009, p. 211). Another definition identifying transformational leadership as a process is that of Bass (1998) who described transformational leadership not as a characteristic but as a process wherein one person creates a link with another person, thereby establishing a connection that helps increase the level of motivation and morality, both for the leader and for the follower. Two elements appear common to these definitions, that of citing morality as the motivation for behavior, and the strong personal relationship between leader and follower, or between persons, as the source of that motivation. According to Barker (2001), leadership is: (1) a process not specifically a function of the person in charge, but a function of individual wills and needs addre ssed by the dynamics of the collective will; (2) a process of adaptation and of evolution, a deviation from convention involving the dynamic exchange and interchange of value; and (3) a process of energy, not structure. Leadership and change therefore go hand in hand; they are the two most important, yet most problematic elements of organizational behavior (Burnes & By, 2011). Leadership is concerned with bringing about transformational change. The fundamental differences between managers and leaders: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Managers can be dismissed from their jobs for breaking rules; leaders can be dismissed for not breaking the rules when it is called for. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Performance measures against which managers are evaluated are clear and short-term; criteria for judging leaders are more vague and long-term. Transformational v transactional leadership The study by Jiao, Richards and Zhang (2011) observed that transformational leaders and transactional leaders are often viewed in juxtaposition and th erefore contrasted against each other. However, there are successful leaders whose style and approach applies both transactional and transformational leadership principles. Transactional leadership is described as a process whereby followers perform assigned tasks in accordance with the leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s instructions in contemplation of rewards and praise, while leaders ensure that the promised remuneration or praise, together with the resources necessary to complete the task, are given as promised. The deal becomes a quid-pro-quo, a give-and-take with each party working towards their own self-interest. Transformational leadership, however, involves profound change, wherein the leaders raise their followersÃ¢â¬â¢ awareness of the value and importance of specified outcomes, and suggest ways by which the follower may attain these outcomes. Leaders influence their followers and motivate them with a moral purpose, so that they transcend their personal interests and work for the collecti ve benefit, in the process fulfilling a higher order need. When the two (i.e., transactional and
Brave New World Revisited by Aldous Huxley - Research Proposal Example In its extreme, racist form, eugenics intended to obliterate all human beings considered "unfit," saving only those who matched to a Nordic label. The eugenics theory hailed forced sterilization and isolation laws, in addition to marriage controls. In America, eugenics practitioners eventually forcefully sterilized some 60,000 Americans, barred the marriage of thousands, compulsorily isolated thousands in "colonies," and harassed countless numbers. Before World War II, nearly half of forced sterilizations were done in California, and even after the war, the state contributes for a major percentage of all such surgeries (Black). In the novel Brave New World, Huxley had indicted against modern science and eugenics. In the second chapter of "Brave New World Revisited", however, Huxley seems disappointed by eugenics being discarded, saying, "In the Brave New World of my fantasy, eugenics and dysgenics were practiced systematically. In this second half of the twentieth century we do nothing systematic about our breeding". Does that mean that Huxley now regrets what he said before, that, social eugenics controlling population systematically would have benefited humanity in the long run Would Huxley now prefer biologically better ova, fertilized by biologically better sperm, to produce better species of people aided by the best possible pre-birth care to be lastly decanted Probably to answer such criticism, Huxley soon says, in the haphazard and looseness of the natural order and the biological interference that is aimed at reducing diseases and so on, we not only over-populate our earth but we also confirm that those who do not receive good care and treatments become the greater numbers - people having biologically poorer attributes. This, according to Huxley, means that an almost unknowing repetition of the Bokanovsky Process as depicted in Brave New World where biologically substandard ova, fertilized by biologically poorer sperm, were put through and dealt before birth with alcohol and other protein-destroying toxics, to make ("decant") the creatures finally nearly subhuman. Thus, for Huxley, eugenics is a proposed as a form of pseudoscience that is focused on "improving" the human race. In this paper, I will discuss Huxley's views on eugenics, the origins of the theory as well as the current views on the same. Development of the study of eugenics Eugenics was proposed as a means to selective breeding and genetic engineering in order to make human beings fit to survive in the world of the fittest, or in what is known as social Darwinism. The definition of eugenics is itself a much controversial subject. While some scholars think altering the gene pool is what is eugenics, some argue even attempting to alter some behavioral traits is also eugenics. Modern day reprogenetics, preemptive abortions and designer babies or infanticide in some primitive societies may also termed as eugenics. Eugenics may be positive - by increasing the fertility rate of the stronger genetic qualities - or negative - by lowering the fertility rate of the weaker genetic qualities. Perhaps this was why abortion was illegal for the racially superior women in Nazi Germany. In the modern times, eugenics is practiced by
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Pan Europa Essay Answer 1: In order to avoid takeover Pan-Europa should develop and maintain faith and loyalty of their customers towards products. Company should also satisfy its stakeholders by expansion and improvement in their market and product. At given time EPS and ShareholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ Equity plays a vital role. Company should increase its market share by same Ã¢â¬Å"low price and high volumeÃ¢â¬ and expand its production for more efficiency. Maarten Leyden from Production should be leading the way for Pan-Europa. Answer 3: Part 1 of the question relates to Question 2 Various study techniques can be used for correction of different factors that affect project. The investmentÃ¢â¬â¢s time value of money and unequal lifetime can be corrected by using net present value method (NPV). Risk can be reduced by Ã¢â¬Å"OptimizationÃ¢â¬ that is finding good balance between advantages and negative risk. Answer 4: Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Must DoÃ¢â¬ project according to me are Project 3 Expansion of a plant Project 6 Effluent water treatment at four plants. Company southeastern region plant in Germany had reached full its full capacity. With the expansion capacity was expected to result in additional production of up to Ã¢â ¬1.5 million per year, yielding an IRR of 11.2%. Water treatment is regulatory requirement and itÃ¢â¬â¢s just matter of time before it has to be done. It might cost company 2.5 times more in coming 4 years than today. Ã¢â¬ ¢Higher risk projects include Development and introduction of new artificially sweetened yogurt and ice cream and Development and roll-out of snack foods. Customers has tendency like monkey and can easily jump from one branch to another and customer just easily switch to another product. Lower risk project is Replacement and expansion of the truck fleet. Ã¢â¬ ¢Combined effort between new plant and expansion of plant alongside with market expansion would be beneficial to the company . Ã¢â¬ ¢Effluent water treatment has nonquantitative benefit because it is environmental compliance. Answer 5: The most desirable projects according to me are new plant and expansion of plant (project 2 3). Ã¢â¬ ¢Is the project a Ã¢â¬Å"must doÃ¢â¬ for reasons outside the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s control? No Ã¢â¬ ¢Does the project meet the company policy for minimum IRR? Yes Ã¢â¬ ¢Does the project meet the company policy minimum payback period? No Ã¢â¬ ¢Does the project incur excessive risk? No Ã¢â¬ ¢Does the project meet the current corporate strategy? Yes Answer 7: Management committeeÃ¢â¬â¢s recommendation to the Board of Directors should be a new and expansion of plant, effluent water treatment and market expansions as per table:
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Management culture on HRM practices Introduction This research paper identifies the influence of management culture on HRM practices and ultimately on the organization. Globalization is a process which facilitates the integration of societies and cultural values by means of communication and trade across nations which are primarily aided by strategic use of information systems. However, there are several issues of concern which an organization should consider before establishing their HRM practices. Issues pertaining cross-national transfer of HRM practices, individualism at work, individual and organizational transformation, more influence of economic success, differences in leadership practices, emphasis to spirituality, dehumanization, greater role of the state, difference in consultation and ownership are some of the key concerns that emerge in organization processes due to the cultural difference in management practice. Both western and non-western management culture has its own benefits and shortcomings. This research paper performs critical analysis of both western and non-western management culture by analyzing the relevant literature of human resource management in line with the management culture which is discussed in the next section. The discussion is built around difference in management styles of countries like Sweden, Japan, United Kingdom and India. In last section, based on the analysis of western and non-western management style, conclusions and recommendations are drawn. Hypothesis View Armstrong (2009) defines human resource management as set of policies which are designed to improve the organizational integration, employee commitment, flexibility and quality of work. Human Resource Management acts as an intermediate between the organization and the employees. The practice of human resource management involves supervision of the people (how they are employed and managed) in the organization. A well-designed structure of human resource management within an organization should result in no Trade Unions. Human resource management is a vital segment of any organization. It plays an important role in defining and designing the elements of organization culture. Organization culture is known as set of shared values and beliefs specified by the organization taking into account various agreeable and disagreeable conducts. Jackson (2002) supports a cross-cultural approach within an organization in order to give emphasis to management of segregation across cultures and to deal with the apprehension of difference in people management styles. Strategic human resource management also helps the organization to gain a sustainable competitive advantage over its competitors composed of high-quality people. The roles and objectives of human resource management depend upon the volume of the organization. Torrington et al. (2005) explained that as the size of the organization increases, the scope of employing people to specialize in particular areas of human resource management also increases. Figure 1.1 demonstrates various roles and objectives of human resource management. Change-management Objectives Performance Objectives Administrative Objectives Staffing Objectives Human Resource Management Human resource generalists Line Managers Consultants and advisers Human resource specialists Subcontractors Figure 1.1: HRM roles and objectives [Torrington et al. (2005)] Keating et al. (2004) identifies comparative human resource management (CHRM) research which improves the adequacy of human resource management practice and provides global point of view. CHRM research includes a comparative study of human resource management which results in variation due to the difference in culture and institutional environments. This research also supports cultural relativity between HRM concepts, theories and models. The word Integrative imply the propensity to collate diverse rudiments into one single function. Liu (2004) suggests that an organization can make use of integrative human resource management (IHRM) research model in order to allow all their subsidiaries to establish same human resource management practices. This method is more expensive due to integration between the parent company and all their subsidiaries through inter-transfer of their HRM practices. A critical challenge facing IHRM is fast and growing globalizing world. Figure 1.2 shows some of the key characteristics of Comparative and Integrative human resource management. Comparative HRM Integrative HRM Comparative HRM compares HRM practices at organizational level as well as national level Integrative HRM approach compares HRM practices at organizational level A study of Comparative HRM helps in identifying different patterns of HRM practices at organizational level as well as national level Two main objectives of Integrative HRM are: Standardization International learning A study of Comparative HRM helps in identifying different reasons for the variations in HRM practices investigated at organizational level as well as national level Integrative HRM approach describes same HRM practices for both parent company as well as its subsidiaries Comparative HRM describes two major categories for the reasons of variation: Cultural Issues Institutional Issues Major challenges of Integrative HRM are: Globalizing world Robust transfer mechanisms Difference in cultural values Comparative HRM does not use theoretical framework Integrative HRM involves centralization of work and improves monitoring Figure 1.2: Comparative HRM and Integrative HRM Comparative HRM and Integrative HRM approach are used by the organization in order to measure the impact of their existing HRM practices. Furthermore, CHRM provides a global perspective and IHRM facilitate centralization of work within organization. The organization implies Comparative Human Resource Management (CHRM) and Integrative Human Resource Management (IHRM) in order to investigate the areas of improvement. In the next part of this section, we shall discuss how CHRM and IHRM are related to the practice of personnel management and work group management. HRM versus Personnel Management Personnel Management is typically related to the practices and guidelines associated with management of employees working in an organization. As discussed earlier (in section 1 overview), HRM also defines the practices related to the supervision of the employees in an organization. So, what is the difference between Personnel Management and HRM? Bratton et al. (2007) describes the evolution of personnel management and some of the key differences between Personnel Management and HRM. In England (1970), when a new legislation was approved, promoting the equality in employment, there was an unexpected increase in the functions and status of personnel manager. A study conducted by Donovan Commission states that since 1914 there has been a constant growth of personnel managers with most of them found to be men. One of the key functions of personnel manager was to deal with Trade Unions. Second World War increased the demand of personnel managers and in 1989, the personnel specialists/managers rose to 35,548. The following figure (Figure 1.3) describes the difference between Personnel Management and HRM. Personnel Management Human Resource Management (HRM) Personnel Management is a subset of Human Resource Management Human Resource Management is integrated with strategic plan of an organization Personnel Management provide more significance to Legally Constructed Exchange Human Resource Management provide more significance to Psychological Contract Personnel Management deals with the activities related to the supervision of an employee like recruitment, training, counseling etc Major objectives of Human Resource Management: Encourage learning at workplace High employee commitment Improve performance of the organization Personnel Management facilitates Work Group management and improves the management process HRM focus more on an individual aspect and marginalize the collective measure of the aspects between an individual and management Figure 1.3: Difference between Personnel Management and HRM [Bratton et al. (2007)] However, as the main purpose of Personnel Management and Human Resource Management is to improve the relationship between the employer and employees, the term Personnel Management and HRM can be used interchangeably. Personnel management deals with functions like counseling for employees, security of personal information and proper job description. Personnel management also gets effected by the impact of cultural differences. Both comparative and integrative human resource management provides a framework which defines the guideline for the practices of personnel management. However, due to the swift growth of business across nations, personnel management practices should also be revised constantly. Work Group management can also be defined as a subset of Human Resource Management which consists of a group that manages the working practices followed by an organization. Work Group management confronts a crucial challenge due to the increase in diversity of culture and beliefs. CHRM and IHRM provide an analysis of the cultural difference which can be useful in design of work group management. Many believe that the concern raised by diversity is simply ignored while establishing HRM policies and practices in an organization. This might result in greater conflicts and low performance. Considering the perception of organization culture, western management culture has always been referred to the things that are not regarded as religious, spiritual and sacred. The universalistic approach makes western management culture give more emphasis to dehumanizing treatment of individuals and neglect the importance of incorporating cross-cultural and shared value perspective within the organization. Individuals are often referred as resources of the organization, which helps the organization to fulfill their requirement in the process of achieving business targets. On the other hand, non-western management culture involves a big fraction of human characteristics at work. Non-western management culture also describes equal importance to spirituality and cultural differences between the employees of the organization. Theory Analysis As discussed in the previous section, Integrative HRM and Comparative HRM help the organization to build a strategic HRM which in turn allows the organization to design competitive strategies in relation to their HRM policies and practices. However, as business is growing more and more in a borderless world, the organization has to deal with two important challenges: Maintain correlation between their national units which operates in respective national cultures. Employees of the organization have difference in cultural value. There are two ways of taking the discussion forward, one is at macro level (among different national culture) and second is at micro level (people possess different cultural value). Boone et al. (1997) identified that integration opportunity and constraining diversity were two main issues faced by the managers in Europe. In 1991, various multinational companies which were operating in Europe were in tight spot of making a strategic decision whether to adopt the European style of management or to continue with their own style of management satisfying all the norms of local-national culture. This involved an investigation from legal, social, economic and political point of view. According to Jackson (2002), there are four dimensions to represent the value systems of any national culture. Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Individualism Masculinity An organization can take up either integrative approach or differentiation approach for their HRM practices. For example, an operational unit of an organization decides to adapt the HRM practices which are followed by the host country. This results in differentiation of HRM practices between the parent company and its subsidiary. What happens when the companys growth is coupled with both the parent company and other operational units? Now, let us try to answer the above asked question by considering the management culture followed in different parts of the world. Swedish Management Culture Western management culture is generally referred to Western Machine Model as business organizations give more emphasis to economic success and often focus more on task completion and outputs rather than creativity, emotions and spirituality. Leaders create a vision whereas managers develop plans based on Leaders vision, the employees/workers concentrate on its implementation. In most of the western countries, robust HRM structure provides broad range of incentives based on the factors like opportunities, participation and working conditions. Jackson (2002) states that, when the act of co-determination at work was passed in 1976, the managers and union representatives were assigned equal right to information and managers were instructed to consult the unions before making any major management decision. Since the end of 1980s, distinctions between blue-collar and white-collar workers were supported by associate agreements which diminished the effect of trade unions at the workplace. Co nstant growth in service industries also resulted in weak trade union representation. In 1994, Sweden joined European Union. Swedes tend to focus more on social democracy and equality. They are impassively practical and bias towards rational reasons which define their sensible approach towards life. Jackson (2002) identified three main factors of Swedish Cultural value: Love of nature Individualism through self-development Equality As per Jackson (2002), Swedish management culture is considered to be ambiguous by the foreign managers. Informal relationships with subsidiary, avoiding conflict, low in power distance, high in individualism, low in uncertainty avoidance, unclear objectives are some of the key traits of Swedish organizations. The factor of equality can be understood by the fact that 75% of the women constitute the workforce. In order to explain this in more detail, Jackson (2002) took an example of IKEA: Furniture Distribution Industry. Since its beginning, IKEA faced a massive challenge of maintaining its Swedishness along with the strategic decision of adapting local-national culture in which they are operating. IKEA has been a global player from past 25 year which includes some of their biggest market in United States of America, France and Germany. Just like Swedish culture, IKEAs management style is also informal denying the actuality of employee as replaceable and interchangeable component. Common practice of sharing knowledge and skills were seen among managers towards their subordinates. Discussion and explanation were prime sources used in order to spread their organizational culture rather than formal training programs. Human resource management has also followed the same Swedish approach. Recruitments were made on the basis of good interpersonal skills and high potential whereas less emphasis is given to formal qualifications. Shortly, IKEA started having trouble with their subsidiaries in countries like Germany, France and USA. Issues pertaining managers authority, informality, job description, assessing risks, indecisiveness, lack of formal rules were some of the key concern for IKEA. IKEA also lost some of their key American managers in the same process. In order to overcome the above mentioned inadequacy, Jackson (2002) proposed a multicultural model. This model suggests that people having different cultural values should work together. Cultural differences and business ethics should not affect each other when communicating across nations. Boone et al. (1997) describes three types of diversity (refer figure 1.4) from the managerial perspective. Types of diversity Examples Diversity in negotiated environment Tax rules Subsidization practices Financial reporting requirements Quality and product standards Administrative diversity Internal accounting rules Information systems Manufacturing systems Inherited diversity Customer preferences Employee characteristics Business systems Figure 1.4: Three types of diversity [Boone et al. (1997)] Japanese versus UK/European Business Model Unlike western management culture, Japanese management style stress more on getting in groups to provide a solution of the problem. Motivation plays a very important role in determining the performance of any organization. However, Japanese organizations stay short on the motivational factor yet report very high productivity. Azhashemi et al. (1999) describes, that in recent years, more importance has been given to efficient frameworks in order to improve the quality of the management practice. Japanese management style introduced Total Integrated Management (TIM) framework to enable the organization to interrelate each of their facets. As multiple factors are joining hands with management quality, it becomes difficult for an organization to focus on each of these factors and enhance their quality of management practice. The following figure illustrates six critical factors defined in Total Integrated Framework (TIM) which are essential for the success of an effective organization. Business Structure Management Resources Management Design Corporate Culture Management Performance Management Cycle Figure 1.5: Critical Factors of Total Integrated Management (TIM) Framework [Azhashemi et al. (1999)] Total Integrated Management (TIM) framework helps the organization to identify the missing loop in their management practice by defining how the management cycle affects four factors of the organization (Business Structure, Management Resources, Management Design and Corporate Culture) which in turn reflects the performance of the management practices. Azhashemi et al. (1999) also describes that the quality of management cycle is directly proportional to the remaining five factors. If the management cycle shows high quality level, the six factors produce an excellent loop that enables the organization to be proactive and implement them. As discussed earlier, Japanese organizations show low job satisfaction. Career or Job satisfaction can be considered as a division of motivation. Jackson (2002) identified that motivational factors include both individual attributes and cultural values. The following figure describes the cultural differences among East Asian and Western cultures which constitutes the motivational factors. East Asian Western Equity Wealth Group Individual Saving Consumption Extended Family Relations Nuclear and mobile family Highly disciplined/motivated workforce Decline in work ethic and hierarchy Protocol, rank and status Informality and personal competence Avoid conflict Conflict to be managed Figure 1.6: Motivational Factors [Jackson (2002)] The core objective of spirituality is non-economic, yet critical for an individual. Spirituality consists of two main elements which are vision and inspiration. This refers to a framework in which more focus is offered to the individual eliminating the possibility of marginalization of human being. However, the perception of Japanese organization about their employees differs from that of western organization which consider employee as Intellectual Capital. Jackson (2002) defined seven spiritual values which are identified in the Japanese culture. National service through industry Fairness Harmony and cooperation Struggle for betterment Courtesy and humility Adjustment and assimilation Gratitude Jackson (2002) classifies British management culture as low measure of power distance, high on individualism, high on masculinity and very low measure of uncertainty avoidance. British organizations are not total learning organizations. However, British management culture is built around the concept of action learning. The second generation of Learning Organizations can be described as Knowledge Management a transition from British Management Style to Japanese Management Style. Jackson (2002) also suggested following methodology for management learning. Azhashemi et al. (1999) illustrates that UK/European business model framework helps the organization to increase management standards and performance. The basis of this framework is Total Quality Management (TQM) which mainly concentrates on customer satisfaction. This business model consists of nine elements (refer figure 1.7) which enables the organization to assess their business results. These nine elements are further divided into two major categories: Enablers and Results. Enablers consist of elements which convert input into output whereas Results allows the organization to measure their level of output. UK/European business model used a method of self-assessment in order to link and improve each facet of an organization. Azhashemi et al. (1999) suggested some of the key benefits of the self-assessment method. An objective assessment against credible and proven criteria. An assessment based on evidence. An opportunity to focus improvement where it is most needed. An opportunity to promote sharing of good, effective approaches within the organization. An opportunity to learn. The analysis of Total Integrated Management (TIM) of Japanese management style and UK/European business model indicates that the two frameworks concentrate mainly on the concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM). Policy and strategy are the two main elements of Total Integrated Management (TIM) framework which displays the belief of Japanese management style that these policies and strategies can affect both business and management factors. On the other hand, UK/European business model enables the organization to achieve high standards. Indian Management Culture Indian management style is based on its diversity with many religions, customs and ethics. Many believe that the managerial behaviour in India is influenced by values and beliefs an individual possess. Some also believe that people work in an organization only to nuture their supervisors. Spirituality plays an important role in Indian management style. Employees often feel difficult to choose between culture of the organization where they work and their own spiritual beliefs. Due to this, it is very often that people resign their job and start their own business which allows them to live based on their own spiritual values. Kumar et al. (2005) describes that the managers in Indian organizations often display emotionality in decision making. The individualism and collectivism goes hand-in-hand in Indian management style. Individualism defines more importance to an individual goal whereas collectivism refers to high importance to objectives of a group. It is often seen that spirituality acts as an vital function of the management style in which influence of the culture is more dominant. Pawar (2009) defined a relationship between individual spirituality, workplace spirituality and work attitudes. Individual spirituality injects into the workplace spirituality which in turn affects the motivation and involvement of an individual towards business ethics. Pawar (2009) explained this in figure 1.8. Individual Spirituality Workplace Spirituality Meaning in work Community at work Positive organizational purpose Positive Work Attitudes Job satisfaction Job involvement Organizational commitment Figure 1.8: Effect of Individual Spirituality and Workplace Spirituality on Work Attitudes [Pawar (2009)] However, Indian Management Style has been stirring towards Western management styles. During this process, difference in business practices and cultural values are some of the key challenges which are faced by Indian management style. Kumar et al. (2005) considered an example to explain this in detail, a subsidairy of South Korean firm in India. The study states that their employee receive targets which they should achieve on regular basis. Employees are also expected to raise their performance constantly. This shows that there is a shift from people-centric culture of Indian management style towards work-centric approach of western management style. Clark et al. (2000) defined the emphasis of HRM in seven European countries. In the last part of this section, we discuss advantages and disadvantages of the application of Comparative/Integrative human relations, Business Ethics and Spiritual/Cultural values to HRM practice. Figure 1.10 describes the advantages and disadvantages of the applications of Comparative and Integrative Human Relations to HRM practice. Advantages Disadvantages Provides an overview of cultural differences at both organizational level and national level Both Comparative HRM and Integrative HRM approach only provide a theoretical framework and does not provide a solution-based framework Provides a measure of diversity level at both organizational level as well as national level Major challenges towards implementation are: Globalizing world Robust transfer mechanism More influence of personal values Provides cultural relativity between HRM model, theories and practices Both Comparative HRM and Integrative HRM approach are too expensive to implement Provides global perspective and aid centralization of work Existing dependence of HRM practices on the laws and regulations governed at national level Provides the list of shortcomings in term of cultural issues and institutional issues Marginalize the collective measure of various other aspects between an employee and the organization Helps the organization in standardization and international learning Cultural and Institutional issues occur during communication across nations Figure 1.10: Advantages and Disadvantages of CHRM/IHRM on HRM Practices Figure 1.11 describes the advantages and disadvantages of the applications of Business Ethics and Spiritual/Cultural values to HRM practice. Advantages Disadvantages Improves the involvement and contribution of an employee at the organization Individual spirituality affects the workplace spirituality Helps the organization to improve productivity in line with high job satisfaction Difficult to manage the diversity in cultural values across organization Facilitate the improvement of Personnel Management practices Difference in business ethics and personal ethics results in greater conflicts in work group design Provides cultural relativity between HRM practices and aid international culture HRM practices need constant modification on regular basis Figure 1.11: Advantages and Disadvantages of Business Ethics Spiritual/Cultural values on HRM Practices Summary According to Stashevsky et al. (2006), leadership styles in which leaders possess intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration and inspirational motivation to be provided to the followers is known as Transformational Leadership. The term Leadership has always been coupled with strategic human resource management (SHRM). Leadership is one of the key managerial traits used in order to understand SHRM. For the organization to adopt resource-based strategic human resource management, one of the vital constraints required is competencies related to leadership. Generally, in an organizational context, the definition of managerial leadership reflects a process in which an individual exhibits influence upon others. However, there is a difference between a leader and a manager. Bratton et al. (2007) also defined that the reflection of the fact leaders create a vision whereas managers develop plans explains the difference. The study reveals that the leadership style followed in western culture is more influenced by repressive nature of the components which constitutes leadership. On the other hand, non-western culture follows the authority displayed by the autocratic nature of leadership components. Many workers/employees in non-western management style are seen to accept incorrect orders as 1) they are not willing to challenge their supervisors and 2) to show respect to their superiors. HRM practices in an organization confront many challenges due to the influence of spirituality and difference in cultural values. There are advantages and disadvantages in integrating spiritual/cultural values to HRM practices. Comparative HRM and Integrative HRM provides a measure of HRM practices at both organizational and national level. Difference in personal values affects the work group design in an organization. Personnel management which facilitates work group management helps the organization to minimize the effect of personal values by means of taking into account the security of personal information, counselling and specification on job. The following are the key issues faced by work group management due to the difference in personal values in a group. Greater conflicts Poor performance Low job satisfaction Traditional practice of HRM or personnel management concentrates mainly on an individual and offers marginalization of various other aspects between an individual and the organization. Due to globalization, it is not feesible to negate the fact that business is growing in borderless world and differences in cultural values are bound to occur. There are concerns if the organization concentrates on spiritual/cultural values more than business ethics, there are issues if the organization cancel out the actuality of cultural and institutional differences. Universal HRM is the key to success. Universal HRM refer to the process of defining high-level HRM models, theories and practices at both organizational level and national level in order to provide the organization with highly motivated workforce and greater productivity. Irrespective of cultural, institutional and various diversities, Universal HRM allows the organization to achieve their business goals more efficiently. After learning and analyzing the HRM practices followed in both western and non-western management style, Universal HRM is considered to be the Best-Practic
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Business environment of indian entertainment industry The liberalization efforts by the Indian government have resulted in the emergence of numerous sectors, which offer great possibilities for Indias development. One such recent sector was interactive media and entertainment, along with information and communication technologies (ICTs). The entertainment and interactive media industry in India has been making headlines of late, not so much for its impact on the domestic market, but as a premier outsourcing destination for western entertainment companies. This was paper examines the growth and development of the interactive media and entertainment industry in India. It discusses Indias position and Indias advantages in the global entertainment industry, the challenges that India faces in this was industry, the path ahead, and opportunities for international collaboration in this was sector. The global film and entertainment industry was expanding fast. The Entertainment Council of Philippines estimates that the revenues from entertainment industry worldwide have been growing annually at 20% to 30% over the past few years. According to Indias National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCM), revenues from the global entertainment industry will amount to US$50-US$70 billion by end-2005. Today, entertainment products are increasingly used in films, TV programmes, commercials, games and online education. Following Walt DISNEY 1988 production Who Framed Roger Rabbit, worldwide interest in entertainment feature films has been raising. Four major entertainment movies released in 2004 collected record revenues. Childrens channels across the world have seen their numbers rising ever so rapidly in the last few years. Entertainment products also have applications in the medical, architecture, and legal fields.1 the global non-entertainment entertainment industry, i ncluding work in scientific and medical entertainment, now accounts for revenues worth $15 billion. ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY The Entertainment Industry in India though a late starter, was considered as one of the fastest growing segments of the entertainment and media industry. The Entertainment Industry in India gained significance as an outsourced destination for entertainment work due to low cost, skilled labour as its many advantages. In the recent past Indian entertainment companies and entertainment studios have been moving up the value chain to create their own intellectual property rights with Hanuman, Roadside Romeo, etc. and partnering with international studios to produce animated properties for the global audience. Though a majority of the work done by the entertainment industry in India was outsourced work, this was was expected to change in the future with increased demand from the domestic entertainment industry. This was industry can be categorized into four different components: Entertainment, education, content development and multimedia/web design. The entertainment market in India was r elatively new compared to some other Asian countries. But it was among the fastest-growing in the Indian entertainment sector. With approximately 200 entertainment studios, India has emerged as a global outsourcing hub for entertainment technology services. The key drivers for the entertainment industry are the increasing domestic demand for entertainment movies and the increase in entertainment studios and training centers across the country. MEANING OF PESTLE ANALYSIS P-Political E-Economical S-Social T-Technological L-Legal E-Environmental Political factors are how and to what degree a government intervenes in the economy. Specifically, political factors include areas such as tax policy, labour law, environmental law, trade restrictions, tariffs, and political stability. Political factors may also include goods and services which the government wants to provide or be provided (merit goods) and those that the government does not want to be provided (demerit goods or merit bads). Furthermore, governments have great influence on the health, education, and infrastructure of a nation. Economical factors include economic growth, interest rates, exchange rates and the inflation rate. These factors have major impacts on how businesses operate and make decisions. For example, interest rates affect a firms cost of capital and therefore to what extent a business grows and expands. Exchange rates affect the costs of exporting goods and the supply and price of imported goods in an economy Social factors include the cultural aspects and include health consciousness, population growth rate, age distribution, career attitudes and emphasis on safety. Trends in social factors affect the demand for a companys products and how that company operates. For example, an ageing population may imply a smaller and less-willing workforce (thus increasing the cost of labour). Furthermore, companies may change various management strategies to adapt to these social trends (such as recruiting older workers). Technological factors include ecological and environmental aspects, such as RD activity, automation, technology incentives and the rate of technological change. They can determine barriers to entry, minimum efficient production level and influence outsourcing decisions. Furthermore, technological shifts can affect costs, quality, and lead to innovation. Legal factors include discrimination law, consumer law, antitrust law, employment law, and health and safety law. These factors can affect how a company operates, its costs, and the demand for its products. Consumer protection laws are designed to ensure fair competition and the free flow of truthful information in the marketplace. These factors can affect how a company operates, its costs, and the demand for its products. Environmental factors include weather, climate, and climate change, which may especially affect industries such as tourism, farming, and insurance. Furthermore, growing awareness to climate change was affecting how companies operate and the products they offerit was both creating new markets and diminishing or destroying existing ones. POLITICAL ANALYSIS OF ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY Government Support Mr. Kapil Sibal, Minister of State for Science and Technology, identified entertainment industry as one of the important sector for Indias export oriented growth.10 However, compared to governments in other countries; efforts by the Indian government to encourage the sector have been very minimal. The government of South Korea funds entertainment ventures on a partnership baswas.11 Bangladesh has a World Bank-funded support programme for the entertainment industry. In contrast, there have not been many initiatives from the Indian government to promote the entertainment industry, at least till the past one year. The Indian government signed co-production treaty with France about 20 years ago and efforts are on to reactivate it. A treaty was signed with the Italian government, which in turn sent a delegation to Goa. Efforts are also on to sign similar agreements with Britain, Japan, Brazil, Canada, Netherlands and China. These treaties will lead to sharing of costs by partner nations and also the dispersion of technical know-how amongst the partner nations. New Government Initiatives A 25-acre Special Export Zone (SEZ) was going to be constructed in the outskirts of Thiruvananthapuram exclusively for the entertainment industry. The commerce ministry was said to have approved the creation of the SEZ within the Film and Video Park (FV Park) set up by the Kerala Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation near Thiruvananthapuram. The state government was said to have created a 15,000 sq meters entertainment facility to welcome entertainment houses to create their bases. The FV Park made a good start when the Chennai-based Prasad Labs has made it its base to process all Malayalam films for the next two years. Kerala has been making efforts at convergence in the areas of information technology and cinema. The Entertainment Production Association of India recently suggested to the Information and Broadcasting Ministry of India that all TV channels must ensure 10% reservation for local animated content. The government can further encourage investments and particip ation in this sector by providing tax benefits. It can provide grants to Indian animators for participation in international conference and for taking up training programs abroad 2. ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS OF ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY Indias attractiveness as an entertainment hub lies in the presence of an English-speaking workforce, high-quality software engineers, a large pool of creative talent, good studios and low costs. The cost of producing a 30-minute 3D entertainment programme in India was US$60,000 compared to US$250,000-400,000 in the United States and Canada. India has a cost advantage compared to the Philippines, which was another low cost producer of entertainments. The average monthly salary of an entertainment professional in India was US$600 compared to US$1,000-US$1,200 in the Philippines. The cost of outsourcing one hour of entertainment work to India was estimated to be 30% to 40% of the corresponding costs in leading entertainment centres in Korea, Taiwan and the Philippines. Indias advantages in low costs have been exploited by many multinational firms and production studios. The advent of digital entertainment coincided with the liberalization of the Indian economy and India offered the benefits of lower production costs, strong creative and technical skills and a large English speaking population. This has led to the development of state of the art entertainment studios in several Indian cities, and these studios are collaborating with global entertainment companies. FACTOR THAT AFFECTING THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY Lack of Finance Indian entertainment firms cannot match their western counterparts in financial strength. It was pointed out that state support in the form of tax holidays was crucial for success in the entertainment business. Canada, for example, offers major incentives to its studios for developing entertainment products. However, financial institutions in India have not been much forthcoming in funding projects in entertainment and interactive media. The long gestation period before fruition of projects discourages potential investors. This can be a major hurdle, and it has, in fact, led to the stoppage of a few production ventures. For example, Jadooworks had to stop production of animated epic of Krishna due to technical problems and lack of funding. The firm was supposedly on the verge of bankruptcy and this has led to the retrenchment of about 250 workers.7 Interestingly, Jadooworks was the same firm which drew appreciation from Thomas Friedman in an article in February 2004 for employing tra ditional artistes and transforming their skills to computerised digital painting he was arguing that globalisation can have beneficial impact on traditional artwasts.8 The experience of Jadoo works underlines the fact that it was still too ambitious for Indian companies to single-handedly enter into entertainment projects. Even a small project in the entertainment industry entails a budget of US$30 million, which was not affordable for Indian firms. 3. SOCIAL ANALYSIS OF ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY Entertainment Products for Illiterates The interactive media and entertainment industry in India has a large domestic market too to tap on. A field-study based research conducted by one of the authors in July-August 2004 on the diffusion of ICTs in Indias rural areas offers some interesting results in this regard.6 The study showed that televsion was a highly popular medium as a source of information in the Indian countryside, as it combines visual and audio effects and was less demanding of the cognitive skills of the user. Almost 35 per cent of Indias over 1 billion population was illiterate. There was great demand from this segment of Indian population for an innovative medium that facilitate communication and information sharing, while at the same time, being easily accessible to the masses via the television. Products of interactive media and entertainment can fill this demand gap to a large extent; they can be great tools for education, entertainment and awareness among illiterates in Indias rural and urban areas. SOCIAL FACTORS AFFECTING FILM AND ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY The Indian Entertainment industry: Facing the manpower challenge Despite the impressive growth forecasts, the Indian Entertainment and Gaming industry will account for less than two percent of the worldwide market in 2010. Obviously a much larger opportunity exists beyond what was currently being envisaged and the potential remains high. India can participate in a more significant way in the global Entertainment market, provided the country has built up requisite manpower, with the relevant expertise, to fuel its growth. According to analysts, India has the potential to grow its Entertainment industry to around US$ 1 billion by 2010, but will remain restricted to US$ 869 million on account of a looming demand-supply gap in the area of employable human resources. Ã A similar situation exists in the gaming segment as well, which has the potential to achieve revenues of US$ 732 million by 2010, but was expected to touch only around US$ 424 million by that period, owing to the paucity of skilled manpower. Ã The employment statistics for the IndianÃ entertainmentÃ and gaming industry during 2006 were as follows: Around 16,500 professionals were employed by the Indian Entertainment industry during 2006. This figure was forecast to increase at a CAGR of 14-15 percent and exceed 26,000 by 2010. There were nearly 150 gaming companies in India, employing about 2,500 people. This number was forecast to increase at a CAGR of over 50 percent to exceed 13,000 by 2010, with the industry revenue forecast to grow nearly ten-fold and reach US$ 424 million. 4. TECHNOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY While it was true that Indias entertainment industry was growing at a remarkable pace, the fact remains that this growth was largely a result of the mushrooming of studios-for-hire. In entertainment feature films, for example, while Indian companies carry out the technological entertainment work, character design, and storyboarding are done abroad. India was yet to become a successful player in concept creation, the high value-adding segment of the industry which remains a preserve of western firms. Indias advantages of low costs in this industry will be too short-lived, and sooner rather than later, the country will have to start developing new technologies. Skills The entertainment industry was still young. Indian cinema was yet to make its mark on the global stage. The booming entertainment outsourcing industry was constantly demanding new skills and fresh infusion of new talent into the industry. As such, it was imperative that we have a healthy pipeline to supply talent to the industry. Skills required in the entertainment field can be clubbed under two broad categories, mainly technical skills and soft skills. Programming expertise, analytical ability, and proficiency on the software are basic requirements for technical skills. The number of professionals joining the entertainment industry has been growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 18.2 percent and was expected to grow at the same rate. Though India possesses the manpower with the requisite skill set, what remains an area of concern was the education imparted to this manpower from the quality perspective. This has resulted in mushrooming of multimedia institutes. What was interesting was that quite a few reputed organizations have come forward and started a chain of multimedia institutions for two reasons. One, they can use the trained professionals for in-house entertainment development and secondly, use this education channel for market diversification and penetration. However, companies need to invest considerable time and money in bringing these students up to the levels where they start earning revenue for the organization. Need For technological training to employees There are no academic institutes like Indian Institutes of Technology, Regional Engineering Colleges, Polytechnics, etc., churning out animators by the thousands. What we have are only fine arts schools which teach the fundamentals but not the technical skills required for production, points out K. Chandrasekhar, General Manager, Media Works, and Tata Elxsi. According to him, this was a major drawback for the industry in India. Education in new media has to be embedded into the mainstream curriculum. Students have to realize that they can have a lucrative career as animators, and the governments as well as educational institutions have to start programmes for their career development. The entertainment sector will benefit greatly by giving encouragement to the community of traditional artists as much as to technically trained professionals. In other words, integration of the rural and urban talent will prove highly beneficial. Also, NASSCOMs President Kiran Karnik believes that there was a need for an entertainment academy to build a steady inflow of entertainment professionals in the industry. NASSCOM extended its help to the government for framing the curriculum and also work with the industry players to enhance the academic-industry interface. 5. LEGAL ANALYSIS OF ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY Intellectual property Outsourcers have always been concerned with the protection of their intellectual property in India. India was one of the few countries which have failed to take stern action against its infringement. India needs to strengthen its IP policy and ensure that companies operating in the outsourcing sphere take stringent steps to take care of clients IP rights. International Cooperation in the Entertainment industry The Indian government was signing co-production treaties with other countries. Professional organisations too are trying to promote the Indian entertainment sector abroad. ASIFA, India, organises film festivals, conducts workshops and entertainment film competitions at the international level. Kahani and Entertainment Bridge have showcased their entertainment shows at Cannes Mipcom (a summit where mobile, broadband and interactive professionals from 95 countries interact with broadcasters, producers and distributors) in October 2005. X-media Lab has been floated to help local, independent digital media producers reach their ideas successfully to the market with assistance from outstanding international new media professionals, who act as mentors to the companies and project teams. The second lab held in Singapore from 17 19 November 2005, Creating Successful Computer Games, attracted worldwide response. Indian developers have also been invited to interact with eight of the best games people in the world. There was also a plan to do a lab in India next year.14 According to Mohit Anand, Country Manager, Microsoft Entertainment and Devices Division, Microsoft India, Gaming in the last 7-8 years has really come a long way but it still has a long way to go. Critical factors like PC penetration, organised retail, broadband, and gaming hardware need to be addressed to help the industry. Those factors are gradually changing and the future definitely looks bright. India was the youngest country in the world, and the new generation was completely tech savvy. We believe that gaming was definitely here to stay and evolve.15 What are the opportunities for engagement between India, Singapore and other Southeast Asian countries in the field of interactive media and entertainment industry? To begin with, Singapore and Southeast Asia will be an important market for products from Indias entertainment industry. Singapore has significant expertise in telecommunication and media industry. Harnessing the favourable trade and investment climate offered by the Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement between the two countries, firms in Singapore should consider investing in Indias entertainment and media business. Maya Academy of Advanced Cinematic, a leading player in the Indian entertainment industry, was planning to extend its operations to Singapore. It was currently working on a project for BBC and has also been involved in the video games division. Entertainment was one of the fastest growing sectors in India-ASEAN relations. The entertainment industry was expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 20 percent from 2002 to 2007. The entertainment industry, with total revenues of US$3.6 billion in 2002, was projected to grow up to US$8.7 billion by 2007. ASEAN was a big market for Indian films. There are tremendous collaboration opportunities between India and ASEAN in the area of 3D entertainment, graphics, etc. The Philippines was, until recently, a fast growing entertainment industry, rich in creative talent, and it was a major destination for outsourcing by entertainment firms in the United States. However, with rise in costs, the entertainment industry in the Philippines has begun to decline, and Filipino workers in the industry have been migrating to India and Singapore in search of jobs. India, the Philippines, Singapore and even China must realize that there was little to be gained in the entertainment industry in the long run by competing with each other on costs. Rather, they should seek avenues for cooperation, and direct their efforts at acquiring intellectual property rights in this creative industry. 6. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY Ability to scale operations. Indian firms are facing a talent shortage which affects their ability to scale up their operations based on client demands. This also affects the clients confidence in off shoring large chunks of work. Though Indian companies have put in place huge expansion plans, these are often marred by various reasons. Tie-ups with educational institutes are helping overcome thwas difficulty. Opportunities in Collaborations Indian companies are trying to improve quality and making attempts to compete globally with the market leaders in the industry. It was said that the year 2004 was a watershed for the Indian entertainment and gaming industry (according to the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry [FICCI] report on the Entertainment Industry). The year was marked by increased use of entertainment in the Bollywood segment. According to the FICCI report, the increasing demand for downloads of games on mobile phones will enhance the opportunities for gaming companies and bring in new entrants. Several Indian companies are entering into collaborations with foreign new media companies, which outsource their work to the Indian companies. Recently, Toonz Entertainment floated a joint venture with First Serve International LLC, a global media company which aims to produce and distribute top-notch entertainment programming for the world market. The new venture will be headed by former Walt Disney executive Ed Bordering. In 2004, a Chinese company also invested in India Games Ltd. Toronto-based entertainment Products Company Kahani was collaborating with Mumbai based Entertainment Bridge. In this venture, Kahani was expected to invest US$30-US$40 million over the next three years to engage in film production. The storylines and scripts will be completed in Canada whilst product development and promotion are expected to be done in India. The company was also planning to tie up with Bangalore and Hyderabad-based studios. Zees entertainment arm, Padmalaya Telefilms, has signed a US$14 million contract with Italian producer-distributor, Mondo TV, to co-produce four new animated series. Padmalaya also has collaborations with British entertainment companies Mallard Media and Ealing Entertainment. CONCLUSION The Indian interactive media and entertainment industry has seen tremendous growth in the last year or so. It was fast emerging from being an outsourcing destination for western entertainment companies to develop and showcase its own capabilities and potentials. The emergence of various industry-related organizations and companies, and the availability of affordable and talented expertise, point to tremendous potential this sector has to offer. Whilst there are internal challenges to the Indian interactive media and entertainment industry, given the efforts being undertaken by the government and like-minded organizations, it will be sooner rather than later, that India lays a strong claim as a major international player in this industry. It was thus opportune for Singapore and countries in the region to identify potential opportunities for collaboration so that we are able to ride on the waves of the Indian interactive media and entertainment industry.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Albert Camus': "Summer in Algiers" This early essay by Albert Camus presents an eloquent picture of his understanding of what it means to know. But in order for us to assimilate it, we must recognize that Camus is not celebrating a hedonic naturalism, nor engaging in an existential anti-intellectualism. Rather, his articulation of lucidity and the exemplification of it in the artistry of the essay itself presents us with a challenging concept of knowledge. I attempt to explicate this concept with the help of two images, one from the musical Hair and one from the movie The Pawnbroker, thus seeking to reinforce Camus' reliance upon image as the equivalent of idea. This is a paper about Albert Camus' understanding of what it means to know as he eloquently expressed it in the essay "Summer in Algiers." To begin it requires two images. First I summon a song from the musical Hair. One of the hippie freaks sings that he is "crazy for the red, white and blue." He castigates his bourgeois detractors for thinking him subversive just because he has long hair. He continues to express devotion to the red, white and blue until, at the end of the song, he adds "crazy for the red, white and blue . . . and yellow and green." Only then do we realize that he has been singing about his experience of color, not of the American flag. The second image is no joke. It is the image of Rod Steiger playing the lead part in The Pawnbroker, the excellent movie adaptation of Edward Wallant's novel. Near the end of the movie, when the old pawnbroker realizes that he has been wrong to isolate himself in bitterness from the human emotions of life by brooding on a past ruined by the Nazi Holocaust, he places his hand on the point of the receipt nail in hi... ...und, tightly mouthing a cigarette, waiting stoically for the next disappointment. Still, there is no contradiction. We need only remember that the nature Camus celebrated was always cruel. "Strange country that gives the man it nourishes both his splendor and his misery!" (p. 141) We need only remember that purity was an intellectual virtue for this shining exemplar of the life of the mind. The life of a man is fulfilled without the aid of his mind, with its backward and forward movements, at one and the same time its solitude and its presences. To see these men of Belcourt working, protecting their wives and children, and often without a reproach, I think one can feel a secret shame. To be sure, I have no illusions about it. There is not much love in the lives I am speaking of. I ought to say that not much remains. But at least they have evaded nothing. (p. 153)
Sunday, August 18, 2019
The Advantages of Being Legal Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are many arguments on the question of whether or not to legalize marijuana. The benefits of legalizing marijuana include its medicinal value and its many uses to produce commercial products like paper, rope, oil, textiles, and canvas. Another good reason to legalize marijuana is that hundreds of thousands of non-violent drug offenders are overpopulating prisons, costing taxpayers millions of dollars. Legalization would also put marijuana dealers out of business and it would bring revenue to the government like alcohol and tobacco does. Some opposition to legalizing marijuana is that traffic fatalities would increase, and that more people like school teachers and bus drivers would be smoking legally purchased marijuana. They also believe that more young people would smoke more marijuana. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Marijuana is medicine and has been used as medicine for thousands of years to treat a wide variety of ailments. It is one of the safest therapeutically active substances known. Marijuana is often useful in the treatment of cancer, AIDS, glaucoma, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy and chronic pain. For cancer patients, marijuana alleviates the nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite caused by chemotherapy treatment. It does the same for people with AIDS. By reducing intraocular pressure, marijuana helps slow or halt the gradual increasing eye pressure suffered by glaucoma patients. Marijuana reduces the muscle pain and spastically caused by multiple sclerosis. It also helps some patients control their bladders. With some epileptic patients, marijuana prevents seizures. Marijuana is also a very effective pain reliever. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Hemp, a plant mainly grown for its use as a fiber source, is from the same plant that produces marijuana. It is different because industrial hemp is grown with minute amounts of delta-9 and tetrahydrocannibinol, abbreviated as THC, which is the element in marijuana that gives the Ã¢â¬Ëhigh sensation'. Industrial hemp is one of nature's strongest and most versatile agricultural crops. It can be used to produce various things such as textiles, paper, clothing, plastics, cosmetics, food stuffs, insulation, and animal feed. Hemp seeds can be used to make high protein foods and the oil can be used to produce non-toxic paint, varnish, detergent, diesel fuel, ink, and lubricating oil. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One acre of hemp produces as much fiber as two to three acres of cotton and one acre also produces as much paper as two to four acres of trees. The advantage of using paper products produced by hemp is that hemp's growing cycle is around one hundred days, while it takes trees years to grow to produce the same amount of paper. Hemp was cultivated in the U. S. until 1937, when the Marijuana Tax Act outlawed marijuana. The Advantages Of Being Legal :: essays research papers The Advantages of Being Legal Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are many arguments on the question of whether or not to legalize marijuana. The benefits of legalizing marijuana include its medicinal value and its many uses to produce commercial products like paper, rope, oil, textiles, and canvas. Another good reason to legalize marijuana is that hundreds of thousands of non-violent drug offenders are overpopulating prisons, costing taxpayers millions of dollars. Legalization would also put marijuana dealers out of business and it would bring revenue to the government like alcohol and tobacco does. Some opposition to legalizing marijuana is that traffic fatalities would increase, and that more people like school teachers and bus drivers would be smoking legally purchased marijuana. They also believe that more young people would smoke more marijuana. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Marijuana is medicine and has been used as medicine for thousands of years to treat a wide variety of ailments. It is one of the safest therapeutically active substances known. Marijuana is often useful in the treatment of cancer, AIDS, glaucoma, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy and chronic pain. For cancer patients, marijuana alleviates the nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite caused by chemotherapy treatment. It does the same for people with AIDS. By reducing intraocular pressure, marijuana helps slow or halt the gradual increasing eye pressure suffered by glaucoma patients. Marijuana reduces the muscle pain and spastically caused by multiple sclerosis. It also helps some patients control their bladders. With some epileptic patients, marijuana prevents seizures. Marijuana is also a very effective pain reliever. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Hemp, a plant mainly grown for its use as a fiber source, is from the same plant that produces marijuana. It is different because industrial hemp is grown with minute amounts of delta-9 and tetrahydrocannibinol, abbreviated as THC, which is the element in marijuana that gives the Ã¢â¬Ëhigh sensation'. Industrial hemp is one of nature's strongest and most versatile agricultural crops. It can be used to produce various things such as textiles, paper, clothing, plastics, cosmetics, food stuffs, insulation, and animal feed. Hemp seeds can be used to make high protein foods and the oil can be used to produce non-toxic paint, varnish, detergent, diesel fuel, ink, and lubricating oil. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One acre of hemp produces as much fiber as two to three acres of cotton and one acre also produces as much paper as two to four acres of trees. The advantage of using paper products produced by hemp is that hemp's growing cycle is around one hundred days, while it takes trees years to grow to produce the same amount of paper. Hemp was cultivated in the U. S. until 1937, when the Marijuana Tax Act outlawed marijuana.
Afghanistan BACKGROUND:Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Afghanistan was subdued and occupied by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (U.S.S.R. i.e. Russia) in 1979. Subsequently in ten years, anti-communist forces provided and trained by the United States, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan assisted in the removal of the Soviet power. As the fighting resumed, a fundamentalist Islamic movement referred to as the Taliban managed to seize most of the country. Under their ascendancy, the country of Afghanistan became extremely improvished and suffered from a fallen governmental infrastructure. GEOGRAPHY:Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Afghanistan is situated in southern Asia, northwest of Pakistan; east of Iran. It possesses a total land area of 647,500 sq. km. In itÃ¢â¬â¢s comparative aspect, Afghanistan is slightly smaller than Texas. Bordering countries such as China, Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan surrounds it. The land is less than 12% arable. 46% of the land consists of permanent pastures and 3% are occupied with forests and woodlands. Mostly rugged mountains and plains in the north and southwest portion of the country make up itÃ¢â¬â¢s terrain. Afghanistan is susceptible to natural hazards such as damaging earthquakes, floods, and droughts. This country has a seasonal climate of arid and semiarid air. They experience cold winters and hot summers. Current environmental issues involve soil degradation, overgrazing, deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials), and desertification. This country has e stablished international environment agreements to deter marine dumping and nuclear testing, in addition to the implementation of environmental modification and preservation of itÃ¢â¬â¢s endangered species. PEOPLE:Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Afghanistan possess a population of 26,818,057 (July 2001 est.) This number consists of 42% under the age of 14, 55% classified between the ages of 15 and 64, and 3% over the age of 65. As of 2001, this country has seen a population growth rate of 3.5%, but this rate exhibits the continuous return of refugees from Iran. The life expectancy of the Afghan people is about 46 years of existence. Afghanistan occupies a multitude of ethnic cultures and groups such as Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, and Uzbek. Most people of this country adopt the religion of Islam with 84% practicing as Sunni Muslims and 15% as ShiÃ¢â¬â¢a Muslims. The languages of this country are in a variation of Pashtu, Afghan Persian, Turkic, and much of them in bilingualism. Illiteracy is the prevalent impediment among the Afghan people with only 31% of the population capable of reading and writing.