Saturday, December 28, 2019

Puritans And Salem Witch Trials - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 467 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2019/06/13 Category History Essay Level High school Tags: Salem Witch Trials Essay Did you like this example? The year of 1962 marked a very important time in the history of the United States. It was a time where religion, culture, and societal as well as gender roles ruled peoples lives and heavily influenced their ways of living. More specifically this year marked the start of what would soon be known as the Salem Witch Trials. More than 200 people would be accused of witchcraft in the small town of Salem, Massachusetts between February of 1662 and May of 1663. A series of trials were run for the accused, but in the end 20 were declared guilty and sentenced to death by hanging. Throughout the trials, members of the English Protestants known as Puritans played an important role in the process and outcomes of many of the accused. The Puritans followed strict moral codes in order to please God in which they believed would punish them for any wrongdoings. They influenced the witch trials in a few ways such as their hostility towards people who were â€Å"different†. Puritans didn’t like to accept people who didn’t follow their strict moral codes, thus witches were frowned upon and thought to be committing sins. Although the Puritans were very strict on the way they lived and their perception of how others should, they were also very fair. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Puritans And Salem Witch Trials" essay for you Create order During the court trials, they would grant pardons for people who would admit guilt or tell the truth as they respected people’s honesty. The Salem Witch Trials would be heavily influenced by Puritan beliefs and would mark an important time in our history. The Salem Witch Trials got its name from the prosecution of witches in Salem, Massachusetts. It began in late 1691, although the killing of witches had been somewhat sporadic in Europe and the colonies. The initial event that sparked the belief in witches occured when a group of young girls began experienced fits and nightmares. As there was no medical explanation that was known of and could account for the strange behaviors of these girls, people turned to the belief that it was a result of witchcraft. After this, the fear of witches began to grow and people were so paranoid that civilians were accusing others of being witches. People accused their neighbors, friends, and in some cases even people in their own family, partially out of the fear that if they didn’t accuse anyone then they themselves may be deemed a witch. The majority of the accused were women, although after time some children were also being questioned for witchcraft. In the end, approximately 150 people were sentenced and brought to court for witchcraft, but for the court that number of people became too much to handle and those who admitted guilt were set free. 19 were sentenced to hanging as they would not â€Å"speak truthfully† and admit to being witches.

Friday, December 20, 2019

The Problem Of Separation And Dualism - 1399 Words

Non Reductive Physicalism â€Å"‘And that’, he argued, ‘means that somewhere in them is intelligence. It can’t be seated in a brain because dissection shows nothing like a brain –but that doesn’t prove there isn’t something that does a brain’s job† (Wyndham, 1951/2008, p. 47) Suppose it is a nice sunny day, and you decide to linger in the sun; after a few minutes you may feel thirsty and you look for some refreshment. It can be said that this situation triggers two ‘situations’; on the one hand there is a physical process: the body’s reaction to heat, and on the other hand, there is a ‘mental effect’: the experience of heat like being thirsty. The relationship between the two situations has been the source of many debates within†¦show more content†¦My own sympathies, supported by arguments like the completeness of physics (Papineau, 2001) –among others- and empirical research is with the physicalist approach. However, one of the problems with physicalism is its reductivism. For example, there is the claim that consciousness is no more than a brain process (Smart, 1959); however, the problem of these reductive approaches is to find the physical process or the physical laws that can explain the mental in th ose terms. There are strong arguments against such reduction: (Putnam, 1967, Davidson, 1970, Fodor, 1974) with the ideas of multiple realizability, special sciences and anomalous monism are all critical of reductive views, consequently a form of physicalism in non-reductive terms is not just plausible, but a promissory alternative of understanding the mental in physical terms; for instance, Baker (2008) suggests that â€Å"nonreductive materialism holds that the mental is ontologically part of the material world; yet, mental properties are causally efficacious without being reducible to physical properties† (Baker, 2009, p. 109). It is argued in this thesis that physicalist ontology can be secure without the constraints and problems of reductionism, through this non-reductive physicalism (NRP for short). Moreover, if identity theory can be reconciled with a view such as functionalism then non-reductive physicalism can be argue it is a robust The Problem Of Separation And Dualism - 1399 Words Non Reductive Physicalism â€Å"‘And that’, he argued, ‘means that somewhere in them is intelligence. It can’t be seated in a brain because dissection shows nothing like a brain –but that doesn’t prove there isn’t something that does a brain’s job† (Wyndham, 1951/2008, p. 47) Suppose it is a nice sunny day, and you decide to linger in the sun; after a few minutes you may feel thirsty and you look for some refreshment. It can be said that this situation triggers two ‘situations’; on the one hand there is a physical process: the body’s reaction to heat, and on the other hand, there is a ‘mental effect’: the experience of heat like being thirsty. The relationship between the two situations has been the source of many debates within philosophy. One name for this entire group of debates is the ‘mind-body problem’; this name suggests a problem of separation and dualism. Dualism shall be claimed, it is an intuitive position; it offers an explanation of the mind and body in terms of substances (Descartes, 1641) or properties (Strawson, 1959), in which the mind is somehow considered as a non-physical thing, thus separated from the physical world. In contrast, a rival view is that there are only physical things, hence there is no separation between mind and body as suggested by dualism, and that the mind is most accurately described in physical terms. (One physicalist view is the identity theory (Place, 1956, Smart, 1959)) So as not to prejudge these problems it may be better toShow MoreRelatedThe Problem Of Separation And Dualism1399 Words   |  6 Pages‘mind-body problem’; this name suggests a problem of separation and dualism. Dualism shall be claimed, it is an intuitive position; it offers an explanation of the mind and body in terms of substances (Descartes, 1641) or properties (Strawson, 1959), in which the mind is somehow considered as a non-physical thing, thus separated from the physical world. In contrast, a rival view is that there are only physical things, hence there is no separation between mind and body as suggested by dualism, and thatRead MoreThe Problem Of Separation And Dualism1399 Words   |  6 Pages‘mind-body problem’; this name suggests a problem of separation and dualism. Dualism shall be claimed, it is an intuitive position; it offers an explanation of the mind and body in terms of substances (Descartes, 1641) or properties (Strawson, 1959), in whi ch the mind is somehow considered as a non-physical thing, thus separated from the physical world. In contrast, a rival view is that there are only physical things, hence there is no separation between mind and body as suggested by dualism, and thatRead MoreThe Theory Of Human Matter1179 Words   |  5 Pagesis idea of a separation of mind and body is known as dualism. It’s opposing belief, monism, is a more scientific view of the mind body problem in that they rely commonly on only what they can observe in the body being that they believe that the body and mind are one. I don’t discredit the work and possibility of the existence of the monist view, I simply am an optimistic and found the dualist approach more appealing in approaching the mind body problem. The theory of mind-body dualism created by ReneRead MoreThe Relation of Consciousness to the Material World Essays707 Words   |  3 PagesThe Relation of Consciousness to the Material Worl The relation of consciousness to the material world is puzzle, which has its origin in dualism, a philosophy of mind which posits their fundamental separation. Dualism, in turn, has its roots in folk wisdom. The belief that humans are more than bodies and that there is something in human nature that survives bodily death has its origins in prehistory; it becomes explicit in the mythology of Ancient Egypt and Assyria and was formulated intoRead MoreRene Descartes And Blaise Pascal1619 Words   |  7 Pagesimplications for the concept of Idealism. The philosophy of Idealism is a system of thought that, in a nut shell, claims that knowledge and reason are dependent upon the mind. This idea is in contradiction to Descartes and Pascal’s belief in dualism. The concept of dualism sets a distinction between mind and body, whereas idealism believes they are one and the same, that thought is a direct consequence of the mind/body system. In his book, Meditations, Rene Descartes covers this idea beginning with doubtRead MoreCartesian Dualism vs Logical Behaviorism Essay1483 Words   |  6 Pagesto philosophy of the mind and discussed through a variety of arguments. Two of the most important arguments with this discussion are Cartesian dualism and logical behaviorism, both of which argue the philosophy of the mind in two completely different ways. Robert Lane, a professor at the University of West Georgia, define the two as follows: Cartesian dualism is the theory that the mind and body are two totally different things, capable of existing separately, and logical behaviorism is the theoryRead MoreRene Descartes: Cartesian Dualism Essay example1625 Words   |  7 PagesDescartian dualism is one of the most long lasting legacies of Rene Descartes’ philosophy. He argues that the mind and body operate as separate entities able to exist without one another. That is, the mind is a thinking, non-extended entity and t he body is non-thinking and extended. His belief elicited a debate over the nature of the mind and body that has spanned centuries, a debate that is still vociferously argued today. In this essay, I will try and tackle Descartes claim and come to some conclusionRead MorePlato’s Tripartite Theory Essays995 Words   |  4 Pagesjust person would operate. He explains that just like society is split up into different institutions, such as the ruling class and the working class, the human being is also split up into different institutions. Plato describes this tripartite separation by using an allegory of a charioteer driving two horses. The charioteer signifies the rational part of the soul. The foul black horse signifies the appetitive part of the soul and the white noble horse next to it signifies the spirited part of theRead MoreAnalysis Of Elisabeth s Criticism Of Descartes Mind Body Dualism1398 Words   |  6 PagesCriticism of Descartes’ Mind-Body Dualism Renà © Descartes’ seventeenth century philosophy receives much of the credit for the basis of modern philosophy, specifically his argument that the body and the mind are completely separate substances, each with its own independence from the other, also known as dualism. Descartes was educated in the Aristotelian and Greek tradition, and those ideas influenced his dualist thought. In Meditations, Descartes focused on dualism in the context of human consciousnessRead MoreCartesian Dualism And Transhumanism : Theories Within Their Time Contexts1510 Words   |  7 PagesCartesian dualism and transhumanism are both controversial theories within their time contexts. Leahey (2004) describes Descartes dualism as the separation of the body and the soul. The soul is immaterial and is the location for thought, consciousness, and the Cartesian Theatre, and controls the actions of the material body. Transhumanism theorises that technology will enhance and supersede human evolution (Elki ns 2011,) as technology will become an extension of ourselves, or already is. I will explore

Thursday, December 12, 2019

A Thousand Splendid Suns Narrative Strategies free essay sample

A Thousand Splendid Suns the reader would think its a happy novel, however theres nothing particularly splendid one would assume about the novel. From the very beginning of the novel the author, Khaled Hosseini inserts hints and foreshadowing to aware the reader that it will be an unhappy story. This is evident in the following illustration when Mariam breaks the sugar bowl , It was the last peice that slipped from Mariams fingers, that fell to the wooden floorboards of thekolba and shattered (Hosseini 2). Hosseini is generating depressing emotions in the novel by introducing words fell or shattered resembling failure or sin. The reader also gets introduced to the word Harami and other words, such as kolba and Jinn which are terms not identified by the author, so the reader must rely on the context to better understand what the word means. For example, when Mariam expresses the fear that the jinn has returned to her mother, the reader will assume that jinn is something bad. We will write a custom essay sample on A Thousand Splendid Suns Narrative Strategies or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The use of these terms establishes the setting , but also signifies that some things cannot be translated remaining a mystery for the reader. In the novel , Hosseini makes the reader live, see and feel by portraying the experiences the characters are going through in the novel, and by writing from a third person point of view , he broadens the readers ability because the perspective of the characters is limited, sometimes Mariam, sometimes Laila, which works to great effect to attach the reader to both characters equally.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Concept Of Power Between Legitimate And Illegitimate †Free Samples

Question: Discuss about the Concept Of Power Between Legitimate And Illegitimate. Answer: The authors emphasized on the concept of power and describes that why it occupies an absolute position in the society. In this regard, the perspectives of the ancient Athenians were discussed which distinguishes between legitimate and illegitimate power. An example of Machiavellis the Prince has been illustrated where individuals can witness power as domination and control where the Prince successfully manages the society by utilizing both legitimate and illegitimate power. It is noteworthy to mention here that since time immemorial, power has been effectively applied by the society towards the individuals. According to Hobbes, there is a flow of power from society to individual. In Nietzsches perspective power is considered as the capacity to define reality. However, Lukes pointed out that power is an essentially contested concept. Wittgenstein however emphasized on concepts of family resemblance in order to define power as a social phenomenon. In the first chapter Gerhard Gohler introduced the distinction between power to and power over which aroused from the distinction made by Aristotle in regard to legitimate and illegitimate power. Various inconsistencies were observed in the distinction between power toand power over. Therefore, Gohler replaced them with transitive and intransitive. In the second chapter, Keith Dowding emphasized that agency and situational advantage is a systematic quality within the rational choice theory. Therefore, he applied the concept of power in order to overcome the accusation that rational choice theory is purely based on agent-centric perspective. In Chapter 3, Peter Morriss demonstrated that how a clear knowledge of power is essential in defining the legitimacy within the liberal tradition. In Chapter 4, by using the methods of comparative political sociology, Charles Tilly examined the utilization of power indices in making sense of levels of democracy and political stability. In Chapter 5, Rob Stones focused on the understanding of power within the framework of structuration theory which was developed by Anthony Giddens. In Chapter 6, the functioning of power in discourse theory has been explained by Jacob Torfing. In Chapter 7, focused that how networks are useful in constituting fabrics of power. In the Chapters 8 and 9, the perspectives of different scholars have been considered with the emergence of a new geography of power. Saskia Sassen alerts the readers about the overlapping mix of spaces and times as the hallmark of the global. However, Allen concentrated on the role played by private equity arrangements. In Chapter 10, Sir Isaiah Berlin provided distinction between positive and negative liberty. The controversial policy innovation has been described which has direct intervention with the aboriginal communities of Australia. In this Chapter the discussion of power suddenly shifts towards the concept of classical liberty. The authors stated that in order to be free from power it is important to gain absolute liberty. In Chapter 11, Nigel Rapport concluded that how the central questioning governing the concept of power is related to the meaning of the self. He notified power is essential as it helps in understanding and addressing the politics of identity. In Chapter 12, Fredrick Engelstad commented that the concept of power is viewed from cultural perspective in the presence of various interpretational modes which influences the social behavior of individuals. In Chapter 13, Gramscis project on hegemony started and therefore shaped researched thinking on power in a new way. In Chapter 14, the classic Weberian account that governs the relationship between power and authority is re-examined. In Chapter 15, critical concepts of power emerged out of the Community Power Debate. However, in Chapter 16 of power was applied was applied to the new emerging concept of feminism and their discussions in relation to race, gender, class and sexuality. In Chapter 17, the authors shared their perspectives on Machiavellian, Nietzscheian and Foucauldian in order to define the account of power. The authors David Courpasson and Franoise Dany demonstrated on the fact that power and resistance are not necessarily illegitimate activities. Kevin Ryan in Chap ter 19 explored that how the relations of power are constituted. Chapter 20 focused on strategic-relational perspective on the state-power nexus. In Chapter 21 it was noted by Phil Cerny in regard to neo-realist perspective that in order to understand the issues of world politics it is important to focus on the power seeking actions of the state as well as on state actors. It has been finally concluded that power is a conceptual tool which is not a single essence; it is eternally contested.