Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Modern Latin America Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Modern Latin America - Essay Example The colonial age in the Latin world should be considered as the region’s most influential years: the laws, norms, movements and conflicts, were significantly influential in deciding the character of the land today. It is known that the Spanish people were the only prominent power that fought over the Latin world to acquire their control (Keen & Haynes, 2012). This is why they have some much influence even to the Latin world of today. As Spain’s political power was merged in the second half of the 16th century, so was its capacity to control and regulate the colonial economy. Functioning in line with the mercantilistic strictures of that era, Spain endeavored to capitalize on ventures through exporting valuable products, such as silver and later other agricultural commodities and minerals (Keen & Haynes, 2012). They also supplied the new colonial market with already manufactured goods in order to create an encouraging balance of trade for the Latin world. Nevertheless, t he strongly regulated trading dominion, based in Seville, was not always capable of providing the colonies effectively, and; therefore the Latin world later saws its independence (Edwards, 2010). This was after a number of successful fights against the Spanish army. Therefore, what changes marked the transition to independence? This paper will discuss the above question especially noting the issues of the Church, race, political legitimacy, neocolonialism, imperialism, sovereignty and national identity. Some of the three primary factors that this paper considers being the landmark of Latin America’s independence are the Catholic Church (separation of the church from the state), imperialism (a free market, the extension of public education and industrialization) and political legitimacy. Church The Church in Latin America bore the marks of its colonial and Iberian past following independence. Spain Catholics adopted a custom of strong faith, a vital doctrinal of enduring piety and knowledge (Keen & Haynes, 2012). Adherence itself was a means of knowledge because, in the Mass, people learnt the scriptures, the doctrines, as well as the secrets of the Catholic faith. Portugal broadcasted an orthodox Catholicism, as well, but with a lower degree of adherence and a less doctrinal knowledge. Everywhere, religion and faith in Latin America was a religious conviction of the citizens and the Church went to receive the observance and the admiration of the mestizos, Indians and other popular people (Edwards, 2010). Supreme groups were less devoted, and the prominent respect for the Church in the 19th century was the apostasy of the influential people, not the neglect of the masses. The Iberian convention in religion favored a well known, honored and a state-ran Church (Keen & Haynes, 2012). But, following independence, the church opted to separate itself from the states. The influential, wealthy and privileged people of the Church were perceived by the new states as an opponent focus of adherence, a source of revenue and a substitute power. The risk of state control emerged in a new form after independence (Edwards, 2010). The Church, therefore, had to look to its own assets and these, in the early 19th century, were thinning. The church was granted an advantaged position because it was also prevalent in Europe at that time. The entire region was typified by great rates of Catholicism after independence. Catholicism rates reached as high as 90% out of the entire Latin American population. Following independe

Monday, October 28, 2019

Principles of Safeguarding and Protection in Health and Social Care Essay Example for Free

Principles of Safeguarding and Protection in Health and Social Care Essay Principles of safeguarding and protection in health and social. Ai; Physical Abuse is when somebody causes feelings of physical pain, injury other suffering or bodily harm, such as hitting, kicking, scratching, pinching, shaking. Sexual Abuse is where you are forced to do, say and watch sexual things. Eg; being undressed or having sexual contact when you do not want to or even touching another person, being made to say sexual things and being made to watch porn is also sexual abuse. Emotional Abuse is a form of power that someone has over you to cause depression, anxiety, stress. It is bullying someone by calling them names that hurts their feeling or to scare them and even threaten them. Financial Abuse is when another person steals or takes something that belongs to you. Eg; stealing your money, making you buy things you are not willing to, refusing to allow individuals to manage their finances and tricking individuals to hand over their property. Institutional Abuse is not only confined to large scale physical or sexual abuse, individuals can also be abused in many other ways in settngs where they could exoect to be cared for and protected. Eg; Individuals not given choice over decisions (meals, outings, clothing.) Mistreated to their medication. Privacy and dignity also not respected. Self-neglect is when an individual neglects to attend to their basic needs. Eg; personal hygiene, appearance, feeding not bothering to obtain medical help or an unwillingness to see people or go out. Neglect by others is when the victim is being looked after by somebody else but fails to provide adequate care. For example failure to provide sufficient supervision, food or medical care, or the failure to fulfil other needs that the victim is unable to provide for herself or himself. see more:explain the importance of an accessible complaints procedure for reducing the likelihood of abuse. Signs and symptoms of abuse. Physical abuse Aii; Bruising Fractures Burns Fear Depression Weight loss Assault Cowering Flinching Welch marks Malnutrition Untreated medical problems Bed sores Confusion Over sedation Emotional abuse:. Fear Depression Confusion Loss of sleep Change in behaviour Onset of phobias No communication Sexual Abuse: Loss of sleep Diseases Repeated urinary infections Bruising Soreness around the genitals Torn, stained bloody underwear or bed sheets Preoccupation with anything sexual Excessive washing Reluctance to be alone with an unknown individual Financial Abuse: Unexplained loss of fundsor withdrawels from bank accounts Inability to pay bills Change in lifestyle/standard of living Basic needs not being met Loss of property Unnecessary building work or repairs to property Not trusting anyone around them Self-neglect: Poor hygiene (smell of urine faeces) Dehydration Weight loss Abnormal body temp Inappropriate clothing Not taking medication Infections Illnesses Institutional abuse: No flexibility at bed time Waking up to a routine Dirty beds and clothing Missing clothing, possessions, documents and letters Excessive or lack of medication Lack of consideration of dietary requirement’s Aiii; If you was to suspect an individual was being abused you should report your concerns to the manager. Also ask to write a private account for your records, making sure it doesnt go in the care plan in case the abuser comes across it. Aiv; If a client was to tell you they are being abused, you should stop what youre doing and listen carefully to them. All conversations should be treated with confidence and information only passed on to those who need to know. Even if the person speaks in the strictest of confidence, line managers must still be informed and the discussion must be written down. Never agree with the client that you wont tell anyone else. Say that youll only tell someone who can do something about it. Av; Make a written record of messages (e.g answer phones) to ensure they are not lost. Include the date and time and sign them. Ensure written records  (notes, letters, bank statements,medication records etc) are kept in a safe place. Do not tidy up, wash clothes, bedding or any other items. Do not try to clear or tidy things up Try not to touch anything un;ess you have to for the immediate wellbeing of the victim- if you have to try make a record of what you have done. If any sexual offence is suspected try to discourage the vicim from washing, drinking, cleaning their teeth or going to the toulet until the police are present. Preserve anything used to warm or comfort the victim (E.g: a blanket). If you can try to ensure that the alleged perpetrator does not have any contact with the victim. Record any physical signs or injuries using a body map or hand drawing write a description of any physical signs or injuries including size, shape colour etc. Always remember to sign and date your notes and any other records you have made. Avi, Avii: No secrets- set out a code of practice of how commissioners and providers of care services should protect vulnerable adults. Criminal records bureau- DBS will filter certain old and minor cautions and convictions, reprimands and warnings from criminal records certificates. DBS- Disclosure and barring service. In safe hands(wales only)- sets out roles and responsibilities of CCIW in relation to other statutory bodies including local authorities who have the lead role in coordinating the development of local policies and procedures in adult protection. Office of the public guardian -agency with responsibilities then extend across England and wales. If supports the public quardian in the registration of enduring powers of attorney and lasting powers of attorney and the supervision of debuties appointed by the court of protection. The code of practice- sets out the criteria against which a registered providers compliance with the requirements relating to cleanliness and infection control will be assessed by the care quality commission. It also provides guidance on how the provider can interpret and meet the registration requirement and comply with the law. Local Partnership boards- committed to preventing the abuse of adults and responding promptly when abuse is suspected. Safeguarding adults means that local authorities, police and NHS agencies involved with adults who might be at risk of abuse have a duty of care to ensure that procedures  are in place, that encourage reporting of suspected abuse, and take action to stop the abuse. Care Quality Organisations (CQC)- registered over 18,000 care homes and publish all inspection reports, which check on the essential standards of quality and safety. Aviii: Social worker- Protect and support vulnerable people, and place them in a safe environment away from risk of danger. A risk assessment is used to decide what help is needed and the correct actions to take. They also investigate any reports. Police- Protect the community, investigate allegations of abuse, prepare court cases and make case reports. Informal agencies or third sector agencies- Research and raise awareness, campains, charities. Offer support (counselling services) Health care practitioners- Perform examinations and report finding relevant authorities . Serious case review chair person- Review serious investigations and/or failures that have previously been investigated and look at what changed need to be made. Aix: Many local Authorities run free, multi-agency, safeguarding courses for anyone who works with vulnerable children and adults, and so should any decent employer in this field. Ask your workplace training department about this. You can also find more information through their local safeguarding team in the Social Services Department or the Independent Safeguarding Authority. Direct.gov Cqc.org.uk Lancashire county council.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Graduation Speech -- Graduation Speech, Commencement Address

Most graduation speeches are about unity and how close we've become as a class. I don't think that this applies to us. Instead, I think we've all become close as individuals, not because of some imaginary entity we all belong to, but because of who we are. But that is what's important. In 10 years, we won't be chanting "Senior Power"; we'll be remembering the individual relationships we all had. I remember after our eighth grade graduation milling about the courtyard, hugging each other and crying for what would become of us. We were scared of high school - this time it's the real world. And later in life, we will face much bigger obstacles that we will overcome, and high school graduation will be fondly remembered. As we approach this real world, it's important to remember the many people who have helped us along the way as leaders, advisers, peers, and friends. I stand before you as the last of three valedictorians to speak. But valedictorians and academies alone do not make up our class. Each person brings a part of themselves. Our talented musicians have enhanced many...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Applying Theory to Practice Essay

Theory offers procedure and arrangement to nursing knowledge and provides a methodical way of collecting data to define, clarify, and forecast nursing practice (McEwen & Willis, 2011). Nurses use nursing theory to develop a certain outlook about patient care. Nursing theories serve as a shared groundwork for nursing practice across all settings to develop better patient care outcomes. This paper will explore childhood obesity and then apply to practice a mid-range and a borrowed nursing theory to the practice problem. Childhood obesity is a national problem that crosses all economic and social lines. Overweight children and adolescents are in jeopardy of having heart disease, such as hyperlipidemia or hypertension. In a varied group trial of 5- to 17-year-olds youths, 70% of overweight youth had at least one risk factor for heart disease (Freedman, Zuguo, Srinivasan, Berenson, & Dietz, 2007). Overweight youth are at higher risk to develop Type II diabetes (Li, Ford, Zhao, & Mokdad, 2009). Type II diabetes increases the risk of long term complications such as renal disease, visual impairment, cardiovascular disease, amputation, neuropathy, up to and including death. Youth that are overweight are also at higher risk for musculoskeletal issues, sleep disorders, socio-economic problems due to families inability to obtain medications and treatment. Overweight youth are also at risk of psychological problems such as being bullied in school, depression, suicide, and poor self-esteem (Dietz, 2004). Children and adolescents who are obese often carry this into adulthood and become obese adults. This sets them up for the likely hood of adult health problems such as heart disease, diabetes, stroke, and osteoarthritis (Guo & Chumlea, 1999). Some of the long term ramifications of childhood obesity include but are not limited to many types of cancer, including cancer of the breast, colon, endometrium, esophagus, kidney, pancreas, gall bladder, thyroid, ovary, cervix, and prostate, multiple myeloma and Hodgkin’s lymphoma (Kushi et al., 2006). There are so many short term and long term emotional and physical ramifications associated with childhood obesity that it warrants research and study. Childhood obesity is preventable and treatable. As a society it is time that measures were put into place to reduce the ever increasing numbers of children dealing with childhood obesity on a daily basis. There also seems to be a tendency for obesity to be passed down from generation to generation not because of genetics alone, but because of the learned lifestyle of the family. To treat children and adolescents for obesity it is going to take educating and treating the entire family unit. References Dietz, W. H. (2004). Overweight in childhood and adolescents. New England Journal of Medicine, 350(), 855-857. Freedman, D. S., Zuguo, M., Srinivasan, S. R., Berenson, G. S., & Dietz, W. H. (2007). Cardiovascular risk factors and excess adiposity among overweight children and adolescents: the Bogalusa heart study. Journal of Pediatrics, 150(1), 12-17. Guo, S. S., & Chumlea, W. C. (1999). Tracking of body mass index in children in relation to overweight in adulthood. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70(), 145-148. Kushi, L. H., Byers, T., Doyle, C., Bandera, E. V., McCullough, M., & Gansler, T. (2006). American cancer society guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention: Reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 56(56), 254. Li, C., Ford, E. S., Zhao, G., & Mokdad, A. H. (2009). Prevalence of prediabetes and its association with clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors and hyperinsu linemia among US adolescents. Diabetes Care, 32(). McEwen, M., & Willis, E. M. (2011). Theoretical basis for nursing (3 ed.). Philidelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer .

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Lsi Paper Leadership and Organizational

LSI Paper   Leadership and Organizational Behavior Anne Peters 07/21/2012 My primary thinking style with the highest percentile is being competitive at 99 percentile. I actually never realized this aspect about my thinking style but now it all makes sense. In the past I have been so busy winning and showing other people losing that I totally forgot to pay attention on my own performance, I guess glory isn’t that important, what really important is how I achieved it.At home, I’ll always be busy competing with the siblings and at work I was always comparing myself to others, hence not paying attention on my performance. My Secondary thinking style is my Affiliative thinking style at 96 percentile. I totally agree with this as I do pay a lot of emphasis on relationships. I am very warm and open about meeting and interacting with new people from different cultural backgrounds and have a keen interest in learning different languages. This thinking style helped me develop g ood interpersonal skills.At home I have great relationship with my parents and siblings. At work I am always deemed as the favorite manager I am very understanding and friendly. My limiting thinking style would be avoidance-thinking style; I believe instead of dealing with the problems I usually walk away from them, which is not a good trait. A problem must be solved instead of letting it lingering in the back of your mind. I may be overly hard on myself. When I make a mistake, it is especially difficult for myself to forgive myself and move on.This can result in a fear of failure, and the feeling that I must avoid situations that carry the risk of personal defeat. I typically refrain from examining and expressing feelings, which could signal a more general pattern of withdrawal. For example in the past I have turned small problems into huge problems overtime since I didn’t feel like tackling them then and there. I had relationship problems and money problems because of my av oidance thinking style.In 2006 I was moving out of my uncle’s house and things went sour in between his family and mine, but since I was young and reckless I completely ignored the problem instead of dealing with it, later on the problem was huge and couldn’t be tackled anymore and till this day I have weirdness involved when meeting up with his family. Impact of my personal styles on my management style: Planning: When it comes to planning my competitive, perfectionist and achievement thinking style play a big role. Planning requires being competitive, you make sure whatever you are planning is worthy enough and efficient.Perfectionist thinking style helps it to be without flaws and no room for errors. Achievement style helps me to be somewhat confident and easily able to meet challenges. Organizing: Again the perfectionist plays a big role in organizing also. The humanistic style helps me in guiding other people towards organization and guiding them and supporting th eir effort. I feel organizing is not the strongest management area for me and I need to work on this skill. Leading: The thinking style of self-actualization, competitive, and power, plays a huge role in helping me lead.I am pretty self-actualized, which means I am really comfortable with myself and who I am. For being a leader one needs to be competitive otherwise you can’t lead if you have the mentality of â€Å"if we lose that’s ok, it’s more like no! We got to win! † I like being in charge and in control of a situation, it’s very typical of me, the sense of being independent makes me comfortable in a leading position. I believe in leading by example style of management, instead of telling people what to do a manager needs to show them how it’s done and then audit to make sure they are just as good as you or your best employee.Controlling: The power, competitive and humanistic thinking style plays a huge role of me being controlling in my work environment. A manager must manage, to be in control one needs to earn respect of their employees, to do so you need to work with them and not against them. Once you earn their trust, they will probably perform the same way whether you are supervising them or not. To be in control you don’t have to be a power hungry manager who always thinks he’s right, but more of a understanding people at their level and culture manager.It’s easy to get into employee’s comfort zone even if you know one thing about their language, ethnicity or culture. Once the barrier is down they respect you and controlling them becomes a lot easier. Genesis: I develop all this thinking style at quite an early stage; I was 21 when I first moved from Karachi, Pakistan to Chicago, United States. Since the beginning I was working a management position in a fast food restaurant and going to school because I wanted to and there was no obligation. The competiveness was there but as I w orked the management position I developed numerous other thinking styles.The self actualized and humanistic style was developed with the helped of my parents; they brought me up with a lot of love and made me feel confident about every decision that I wanted to make. Having parents like mine makes a huge difference in one’s thinking style. I worked as a general manager at a fast food restaurant for quite a while and then was hired as a creative designer and HR for a new concept restaurant that was serving Lebanese food. This opportunity helped me polish my Humanistic, competitive, perfectionist and achievement thinking styles even more.And recently I moved to southern California to start another concept restaurant by leaving everything behind and taking another major change in my life hence making me a big risk taker. Overall I am pretty satisfied with my LSI results, although I have realized there are aspects I really need to work on, but then again nobody is perfect. The ar eas that I need to work on are: Conventional: I really need to follow my heart and Ideas more than just be by the book. Dependent: I shouldn’t be dependent on other people for approval, ometimes I need to do things on my own. Avoidance: I need to deal with problems right there and in the face instead of slacking. Competitive: Need to be a little less competitive and let other people get ahead and learn from them. Achievement: I need to work on my goals a little bit more, be more goal oriented than living day to day. Oppositional: Be a little less oppositional and be more open to other people’s ideas. I plan to learn to be a better management from this class and apply all these new thinking style I never know I had.Hopefully in the future I’ll be able to fine-tune all this style to become a better performing manager. Name:  Ã‚  D01673320| Date Survey Taken:  Ã‚  | Your LSI Styles ProfileThe raw and percentile scores in the table below and the extensions on th e circumplex shown below depict your perceptions of how you think and behave. The CONSTRUCTIVE Styles (11, 12, 1, and 2 o'clock positions) reflect self-enhancing thinking and behavior that contribute to one's level of satisfaction, ability to develop healthy relationships and work effectively with people, and proficiency at accomplishing tasks.The PASSIVE/DEFENSIVE Styles (3, 4, 5, and 6 o'clock positions) represent self-protecting thinking and behavior that promote the fulfillment of security needs through interaction with people. The AGGRESSIVE/DEFENSIVE Styles (7, 8, 9, and 10 o'clock positions) describe self-promoting thinking and behavior used to maintain status/position and fulfill security needs through task-related activities. Position| Style| Score| Percentile| 1| Humanistic-Encouraging| 35| 80| 2| Affiliative| 39| 96| 3| Approval| 28| 95| 4| Conventional| 25| 93| 5| Dependent| 23| 90| 6| Avoidance| 13| 83| | Oppositional| 15| 87| 8| Power| 13| 79| 9| Competitive| 29| 99| 1 0| Perfectionistic| 24| 75| 11| Achievement| 33| 63| 12| Self-Actualizing| 37| 93| The raw scores potentially range from 0 to 40. The percentile scores represent your results compared to those of 9,207 individuals who previously completed the Life Styles Inventory. For example, a percentile score of 75 means that you scored higher along a particular position than 75% of the other respondents in the sample and, in turn, indicates that the style represented by that position is strongly descriptive of you.In contrast, a score of 25 means that you scored higher than only about 25% of the other respondents and therefore indicates that the style represented by that position is not very descriptive of you. Your LSI Styles CircumplexFor detailed descriptions of each of these 12 styles,? click on the circumplex graphic in each of the 12 sections. Examining your CircumplexTo accurately interpret your LSI results, it is important for you to consider your score on each style in terms of its ran ge (high, medium, or low) on the profile. The three ranges correspond to the percentile points in the circumplex and in the table above. |

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Science and The Age of the Enlightenment essays

Science and The Age of the Enlightenment essays There were many people involved in the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment. Most of these people were fine scholars. It all started out with Copernicus and his book called On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. This book marked the beginning of modern astrology. The current dispute at times echoes the tensions that existed in the sixteenth century between believers in the Copernican theory of the universe and the Ptolemaic established order, which preached that the earth was the center of the galaxy. His theory was anathema to the church and a threat to the established way of thinking about the world and the people in it. Skeptical thinkers, such as Galileo and Kepler, produced treatises that helped build a case for an alternative way of viewing the solar system. It was a gradual shift in professional allegiances in educational evaluation. No promises can be made for the power of a new paradigm offers a new set of explanations of our educational system. Descartes contemporary, the English philosopher Francis Bacon, took a somewhat stronger line concerning how conclusions should be reached. Bacon rejected deducing knowledge from self-evident principles and instead argued that only through observation and repeatable experiments could theories be built. Bacon thus relied on proofs that could be demonstrated physically, not through deductive logic. He believed that the pursuit of scientific knowledge would enrich human life immeasurably. Galileos lunar observations extend from 1609 to 1638 when failing eyesight compelled him to abandon his astronomical research. During these three decades, he discovered an important contribution to our understanding of three important aspects of the moon. 1. The discovery of the mountainous surface of the moon and the first lunar maps; 2. The discovery of the moons liberations; 3. The interpretation of the moon...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Outsourcing Essay

Outsourcing Essay Outsourcing Essay Outsourcing EssayOutsourcing has become a common practice in business in general and in electronic commerce in particular. However, along with numerous benefits, outsourcing also creates numerous risks such as the loss of control over e-business operations, lack of strategic alignment of corporate processes and operations, information leaks, etc (Lientz Rea, 2009). In the presence of outsourcing, the companys structure changes from integrated to distributed, and management approaches should be properly adjusted taking into account the risks of outsourcing. Therefore, if the company starts outsourcing some e-business activities, it should change its focus from tactical internal operations to strategic operations (Lientz Rea, 2009).It is important to develop an outsourcing strategy in such a way that the dependence on contractors does not create mission-critical risks (Braithwaite, 2002). In this context, the company should retain its core functions, such as management and supervisio n (Braithwaite, 2002), and other business-critical operations and capabilities. For maintaining business security and continuity, it is reasonable to outsource only those functions and processes which can be restored and do not form the companys core capabilities.From the perspective of retaining core capabilities and strategic focus, it is essential that the head of the business management function of an electronic commerce initiative is an employee of the company implementing the project. If business management functions of an e-commerce initiative are completely outsourced, there emerge high risks of losing control over e-commerce operations, losing clients or profits due to the lack of strategic alignment, or failing e-commerce initiatives if the contractors experience some issues. Furthermore, the presence of the head of the e-commerce business management function in the companys internal team is necessary for setting the companys strategic focus and objectives.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Do Longer SAT Essays Really Score Higher

Do Longer SAT Essays Really Score Higher SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Rumor has it, the longer your SAT essay, the higher your score. Could this be true? Does essay length affect your score? Let's unpack this belief and talk about the best strategies for scoring high on the SAT essay. Rumor Has It... When Milo Beckman was 14 and attending Stuyvesant High School in New York City, he started to suspect that the key to a high score on the SAT essay was simply filling up all the lines. He himself had already taken the SAT twice, and he found that his longer essay got a higher score, even though he thought it was inferior and contained lots of inaccuracies. To investigate this, Milo asked students at his high school to report their scores and the number of lines they wrote on their essays. Out of 5 essays, he found that the longer ones almost always received higher scores. Milo concluded that the more you write, the better you score. Milo Beckman hasn't been the only person to come to this conclusion. Lee Perelman, former director of writing across curriculum at MIT, holds to his position that the more words you put on the page, the higher your score will be. He also has some other tips for guaranteeing a high score that we'll take a look at below. To read more about Milo and Lee's studies, check out this intriguing article. What does the College Board think? So what does College Board have to say about these claims? Unsurprisingly, they're not having it. According to College Board, length often correlates with quality, but it does not in and of itself predict a good score. Instead, longer essays often have well developed arguments supported by nuanced examples. Quality, not quantity, they insist, is what the SAT essay is all about. So what does College Board think it takes to score a 12? And what are our suggestions for tackling the SAT essay? Let's take a look at the best strategies, but first, a quick review of how the essay is scored. How Is the Essay Scored? The highest score you can achieve on the SAT essay is a 12. The lowest is 2 (or 0, I suppose, if you were to leave it completely blank!). Two graders will read your essay and score it from 1 to 6. If they have very different opinions on your score, then a third reader will be brought in to give her input. Then these scores are added together. College Board says that its graders base their scores on five main domains: The development of a point of view supported by appropriate examples and effective evidence. Organization, coherence, and logical progression of ideas. Skillful language with a varied vocabulary. Variety in sentence structure. Good grammar, syntax, and mechanics. An essay that achieves a 6 is strong in all these areas and almost free of errors. Lower grades are progressively weaker in their points of view, supporting evidence, organization, vocabulary, sentence variety, and grammatical accuracy. Do these criteria seem easier said than done? Here we detail 15 key tips you need to know to fulfill these expectations and score highly on the SAT essay. You'll notice that none of these criteria mentions essay length. According to College Board,an essay does not necessarily need to fill all the pages or be five paragraphs to be insightful, use skillful language, or develop a point of view. The testmakers also stress that students should read the entire assignment given to them, including the extra reading material, which is usually a quote. As you saw above, Milo Beckman and Lee Perelman think otherwise. So what do we think about all these tips and strategies - should your essay be as long as you can make it? Or do they? With these strategies, the SAT essay might start to feel very simple indeed! How to Score Highly On the Essay Write a Lot Milo and Lee have a point - generally speaking, longer essays do score better. However, length really doesn't guarantee a high score if you don't write skillfully, develop a point of view, and use 2 to 3 well thought-out, relevant, and persuasive examples. You want to use all the strategies listed in this article to guarantee a high score. These approaches, in turn, will help facilitate your writing a long essay that merits a high score. You may argue, "But what if I can achieve all those things in less sentences?" I would say, it's great that you can be so concise, but on the SAT, less is not more. More is more. Check out our best tips on How to Score a 12 on the SAT Essay here.I'll go over a few of these strategies below, with some links throughout for you to read more in-depth advice. Pick a Side Lee Perelman stresses that students should always pick a side when answering the prompt, and I tend to agree. This doesn't mean that nuanced, middle ground essays can't score well. However, it is much more challenging to argue well for both sides in such a short, pressure-packed time frame. Even if you don't have a strong, passionate feeling on the prompt you're given - make it slightly easier on yourself and choose one side. No one is going to hold you to this opinion in the future. It's more about showing you can develop and support a strong point of view through writing, rather than revealing how you personally feel aboutthis topic or that topic. The SAT uses 6 types of essay prompts again and again. Read about the 6 types here, along with examples!And for the complete list of SAT essay prompts, this article has everything you need to know. Use Tried and True Structure Again, you only have 25 minutes! Don't try to awe the graders with postmodern literary experimentation or a rap song. Stick to the 5 paragraph structure - introduction, three paragraphs with supporting examples, and conclusion. Your introduction should close with your thesis statement, and your conclusion should have a strong last line that sums everything up with a punch. You can see how using this structure relates to writing a long essay - a true five paragraph essay, with 5 to 7 sentences per paragraph, should just about fill up all the available pages you're allotted in your test booklet. For a step-by-step breakdown of exactly how to write the SAT essay, examine this article here. Use Smooth Transitions and Varied Sentence Structure Both your individual sentences and general ideas should flow smoothly and logically. Transitions words like "furthermore, additionally, alternatively, similarly, therefore, because of this, for example," and many others, can help connect sentences, paragraphs, and concepts. On a similar note, you don't want every sentence to start with a simple 'subject-verb' construction: "I think, I said, I had," over and over again, for instance. Mixing up your sentence structure will help your essay read smoothly. This will probably happen naturally as you write, and you can improve by practicing and paying attention to sentence structure as you read books, news articles, and magazines in your day to day. These complex and varied sentence structures will also contribute to your writing a long SAT essay. Have Gos Your SAT essay will achieve the expected length if you are able to provide specific, thoughtful examples to support your point of view. But what if your mind goes blank during the actual test? To help avoid this worst-case scenario, you should show up with some go-to examples on hand. This article has some great examples of literary, historical, and current events examples that can be used to support a wide range of different arguments. Again, complex examples that you understand well will help you develop a full, long, five paragraph essay. As Milo Beckman and Lee Perelman suggested, you don't have to worry too much about accuracy, either! Pace Yourself You may be worrying that you can't fill up the essay pages in such a short amount of time. This is where practice and training is key. Your hand might ache and feel ready to fall off by the end of the 25 minute essay section, but you'll be able to finish the essay in time if you hit the ground running. How to structure your essay time: 3-4 minutes planning and structuring your essay 15-18 minutes drafting 2-3 minutes at the end to read over your essay and revise. As long as you do some serious prep, you can spend the majority of your time drafting,not staring at a blank page. This should be more than enough to achieve to create a nuanced, well developed, and long SAT essay. But seriously, are longer essays better? So Is a Longer Essay Better? For the most part, I would agree with Milo and Lee that longer essays do tend to garner higher scores on the SAT. However, they need to incorporate all those other elements, too - a well developed argument, detailed examples, skillful language, and logical organization. All of these elements help facilitate writing a longer essay, so they really go hand in hand. While you don't have a lot of time to produce this work, you can prep for it by using these tips and strategies and practicing leading up to the SAT. Writing is a skill like any other. It's not a fixed thing, like you're good at writing or you're not - instead, you can grow your skills and get better with practice. As you're prepping, maybe you can even ask a friend, family member, or teacher to "grade" your essay and give you feedback for improvement. After all your preparation and these strategies, you should be able to craft a clear, lengthy essay that scores highly on the SAT. What's Next? Are you deciding between the new SAT and the old SAT? Read about all the differences between the two tests here so you know what to expect. Is the essay on the new SAT any different from previous essays? We break down the new SAT essay here. Are you aiming for a perfect score? This 2400 scorer explains how you can achieve the highest score, too. Want to get serious about improving your SAT score? We have the leading online SAT prep program that will raise your score by 240+ points, guaranteed. Exclusive to our program, we have an expert SAT instructor grade each of your SAT essays and give you customized feedback on how to improve your score. This can mean an instant jump of 80 points on the Writing section alone. Check out our 5-day free trial and sign up for free: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Tweet Rebecca Safier About the Author Rebecca graduated with her Master's in Adolescent Counseling from the Harvard Graduate School of Education. She has years of teaching and college counseling experience and is passionate about helping students achieve their goals and improve their well-being. She graduated magna cum laude from Tufts University and scored in the 99th percentile on the SAT. Get Free Guides to Boost Your SAT/ACT Get FREE EXCLUSIVE insider tips on how to ACE THE SAT/ACT. 100% Privacy. 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Saturday, October 19, 2019

Vinal Barbaros's Options Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Vinal Barbaros's Options - Essay Example From this study it is clear that when the issues are revealed, conflicts may arise from agency interests, as the uncertainty in the company's future due to its failing operations may threaten the status quo, especially when it comes to cost-cutting activities such as downsizing in order to address the problem on profitability. One of the key stakeholders in this case is the company's major investor, the creditor National Bank of Australia. If the company reports the true amount of the cost estimates, the bank will have to protect its position with regard to its investment in the company. This can be done by downgrading the company's credit rating and increasing the interest payments due to default, or look for a second way out when it comes to getting the amount that is due. In this case, the owner or the major shareholder is deprived of knowing the true performance of the company. Because he does not know, he cannot do something in order to preserve his wealth or shareholder value. As for the company's employees, they will not be informed of the company's shortcomings with regard to dealing with its efficiency and operations productivity. As for the company's major investor, its creditor the National Bank of Australia, it will be able to grant a renewal on the company's loan by assuming that nothing is wrong in the company's operations, which puts its financial position in the company at risk because of misleading information. If the company continues to fail during its subsequent operations, the bank will have to suffer and absorb the losses with regard to the company's failure to pay on time. If the company has been able to recoup its losses, the bank has still been misled by the company because of the act; when it is found out, the bank can resort to proper means in order to compensate it for the possible losses from such act.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Business Issues and the Context of Human Resources Assignment

Business Issues and the Context of Human Resources - Assignment Example In the year 2007, Vodafone Group achieved the permission or license of mobile phone within the region of Qatar. It is recognized with the name, Vodafone Qatar, which is situated in Qatar Science and Technology Park (QSTP). However, within a very small time frame, it become successful in positioning itself as one of the reliable and admirable brand in the region of Qatar among other rival players. It is mainly due to its aim to offer distinctive services to its customers so as to create a different image in the market. This strategy proved effective for the organization that enhanced almost 32.3 percent of the total market share and brand value of Qatar among many other contenders such as Qtel. Furthermore, the range of customers also increased from 151,000 in the year 2009 to 814,000 in September, 2011 (Vodafone Qatar Q.S.C, 2011). In this age of competitiveness, sustainability is the prime requirement of any organization, operating in any segment. However, in order to attain sustainability, it’s extremely to analyze the capabilities and evaluate the resources in the best way so as to attain remarkable results. Only then, the productivity of the organization might get enhanced resulting in amplification of the brand image and equity in the market among other existing contenders. Thus, it might be stated that in order to attain competitive position, the business or human resource strategies or tactics need to be shaped in an effective way. Similarly, the organization of Vodafone Qatar, also comprises of varied types of forces that helps in shaping its human resource strategy for future growth and development. Some of these factors are presented below: Talent management: It is recognized as one of the most important factor or force that helps in shaping the human resource strategies or policies of the organization of Vodafone Qatar. This is because in this age, talent or experienced employee is the prime weapon that may help the organization in inventing

E-Commerce and Information Technology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

E-Commerce and Information Technology - Essay Example IT implementation, therefore, requires evaluation measures that are effective in order to be successful in implementing the new technologies intended for the organization. Theories have been evolving in recent years that are able to give guidance to an organization in implementing innovations. Technology Acceptance Model Technology acceptance model theory specifies the casual relationship present in system design features, the behaviour of usage and how the toll is easy for usage. TAM predicts the acceptability of a specific tool and any modifications that should be put in place for the tool, to be acceptable by the end users. For an information to be accepted the users will analyse its usefulness and how easy it will be for them to use it. Behaviour intention affects the usage of information systems including the perception of how it is going to be utilised. An individual’s attitude and the impact the tool to be used has on the performance greatly affects the usage of a syste m. It is true to say that if an individual does not welcome the use of information system in the workplace but has perceptions that it will improve work performance; the individual will eventually use the information systems at the end of it all. With TAM, there is a link between what an employee at the work place perceives and the usefulness of the tool to be implemented. The extent to which technology will be used in an organization is mainly caused by technology diffusion;1 moreover, an employee’s ease of use attitude at the workplace will be influenced by a self-efficacy mechanism and his instrumentality. The behaviour and intentions a person creates towards a system will influence the person’s perception about the said system. In some cases, an individual may form a behavioural intention of a system and not necessarily have an attitude towards it. This creates a strong relation between a system that is the self-reported usage and has a perceived usefulness and it affects an individual’s intention. On the contrary, perceived ease of use has a significant effect on the behaviour intention of and individual and it later subsides over a period. Behaviour intention of a person towards a system, therefore, is greatly influenced by its perceived usefulness and the perception of ease of use. DHL Express Finland, in a case study carried out by Kuula and Annu, adopted an IntraShip application in order to improve on their B2B customers who make orders at DHL.2 The orders that were made to DHL gave the customers a number one experience. Shipping orders, being an important part of a company’s daily operations, made the consumers have a high level of usability and the experience they had been varied within a period of 6 months to 7 years. Majority of the users had been using the applications for a period not more than two years and later changed to other service providers other than DHL Express. The customers were satisfied with the changed situation at DHL Express, and it was problematic, but it is also smooth using IntraShip application. The main issue with the customers was the fact that there were issues relating to the ability to learn of IntraShip, and this was regarding facilitating conditions such as training. Even though, the application had certain features that were harder to learn, most customers thought the application was simple and in a matter of time, they would get used to it. Having internet and technology

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Strategic Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 15

Strategic Management - Essay Example As can be seen in industries which become an icon for nations, there are strong sentiments attached with the commercial aircraft manufacturing industry. This factor is a very dominant contributor to industry dynamics and strategic shape of the industry. The strategic importance of national sentiments attached to some companies is explained by Lou Gerstner in his very famous book ‘Who says elephants can’t dance?’ According to Gerstner one of the major reasons he took up to task of bringing IBM back from brink of bankruptcy was the cultural significance and sentiments attached with IBM of both American businesses and people. The same cultural significance lies with the dominant players of the commercial aircraft manufacturers. This factor is significant for both Boeing and Airbus and holds a very significant importance in determining the analysis provided below. The best method to understand the dynamics of any industry is through the porter’s five forces analysis. This model gives a comprehensive analysis of the different forces functioning in the industry and determines industry’s strategic positioning. This model is also very useful in providing a comprehensive analysis of the individual analysis and more importantly contribution to determining the overall positioning of the industry. The model is used for this example is as follow: The most important factor for any industry is the bargaining power of customers. This is a very economics driven phenomenon. This is because the customers function as a whole on factors of demand and supply. The demand factors for an industry determine the power of firms operating in the industry. The substitutability of a product is the key to bargaining power of customers. This can be analyzed by using exampling of medicines and burgers. The customer when buying medicines will have a very small power because this product has a low elasticity of demand. However,

Religion in culture and society Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Religion in culture and society - Essay Example f religious and cultural diversity intolerance has been fading over time, with the increase in the prevalence of both cultural relativism and globalization. Globalization can be simply termed as the process by which people from different cultures are connected and made to interact with each other. On the other hand, cultural relativism is the thought that all cultures are acceptable, despite the differences in their basic principles. Thus, the fact that anthropological analysis has discovered a transformation in religious and cultural tolerance overtime may be attributed to different factors globally. For example there is tolerance of both the Christian and Islamic religions in the American society. Nevertheless, one of the major areas of anthropological interest would remain to unearth the factors that have contributed to human cultural and religious transformation, leading to the acceptance of religious and cultural diversity over time. Thus, the major question becomes; how have gl obalization and cultural relativism impacted on religion in the American society? According to Dr. Xia Guang (Guang, 2007), the world has become a global village. However, rather than being culturally homogeneous, it has remained a field of diverse cultures. Thus, how different cultures interact with one another determines their survival and reinvention. There are various factors accounting for survival and dominance of certain cultures and religions over others. The first and most important factor is civilization and the influence of the Western culture. Most of the cultures of the developing nations have been greatly influenced by the Western culture which is considered to be more superior to the other cultures. This has led to the erosion of most of the cultures of the developing nations. These nations have adopted the so-called superior cultures of the West. The coming of modernity and civilization has contributed negatively to the demise of the traditional cultural values and

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Strategic Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 15

Strategic Management - Essay Example As can be seen in industries which become an icon for nations, there are strong sentiments attached with the commercial aircraft manufacturing industry. This factor is a very dominant contributor to industry dynamics and strategic shape of the industry. The strategic importance of national sentiments attached to some companies is explained by Lou Gerstner in his very famous book ‘Who says elephants can’t dance?’ According to Gerstner one of the major reasons he took up to task of bringing IBM back from brink of bankruptcy was the cultural significance and sentiments attached with IBM of both American businesses and people. The same cultural significance lies with the dominant players of the commercial aircraft manufacturers. This factor is significant for both Boeing and Airbus and holds a very significant importance in determining the analysis provided below. The best method to understand the dynamics of any industry is through the porter’s five forces analysis. This model gives a comprehensive analysis of the different forces functioning in the industry and determines industry’s strategic positioning. This model is also very useful in providing a comprehensive analysis of the individual analysis and more importantly contribution to determining the overall positioning of the industry. The model is used for this example is as follow: The most important factor for any industry is the bargaining power of customers. This is a very economics driven phenomenon. This is because the customers function as a whole on factors of demand and supply. The demand factors for an industry determine the power of firms operating in the industry. The substitutability of a product is the key to bargaining power of customers. This can be analyzed by using exampling of medicines and burgers. The customer when buying medicines will have a very small power because this product has a low elasticity of demand. However,

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

History and function of legal services of america Research Paper

History and function of legal services of america - Research Paper Example This paper is in the view that inequities in the delivery of U.S. legal assistance ought to be dealt with. It is therefore recommended that a young generation of advocates for legal assistance be promoted plus the establishment of a mission of incorporating legal assistance into the promotion of human rights campaign. History and Function of Legal Services of America Legal service refers to the help or free service in the law field. In its different decisions, the Supreme Court has declared flatly that legal aid is a responsibility of a welfare state and should not at any time be viewed as a charity. From as early as the late 1800s and all through the early 20th century years, the American legal profession conveyed its dedication to the idea of free legal aid for the poor. This would be in form of bar association, legal aid committees and legal aid societies. Since 1964, the government of the United States has backed its dedication to equal justice under the law through offering fede ral financing for civil legal assistance to individuals with low-income (Auerbach, 1977). ... This was the first agency that offered legal aid to people no matter their sex, race or nationality (Auerbach, 1977). Other municipalities also followed in this direction and most major cities had new legal aid offices in the first decades of the twentieth century. Legal Services Corporation (LSC) A corporation controlled by a nonpartisan, independent Board was created by the LSC Act. It was appointed by the President and affirmed by the Senate. Of the eleven members, there were no more than six members belonging to the same political party. Attorneys had to make a majority of the board and it was to be inclusive of persons who would actually be qualified for legal services. Additionally, the board was to in general represent the organized bar, lawyers offering legal aid to the poor and the public at large. The corporation was entitled to obtain federal financing and make grants to local legal services programs that were independent (Subrin & Woo, 2008). President Gerald Ford appoint ed the first LSC Board which was confirmed in mid-1975. The decisions made by the board on the major policy issues expressed a desire to make sure that the individuals who were poor had legal representation that was effective and an appreciation of the merits that the existing delivery system had. Most of the effort by the corporation initially went into acquiring more financing from Congress in order to expand the reach of the legal services program. In 1977, without substantial argument, the Corporation was reauthorized for three more years. There was clarification as well as lifting of some restrictions. LSC started focusing on making the local programs more effective through the improvement of the evaluation and monitoring systems. By 1981, the LSC was

History of Special Education Essay Example for Free

History of Special Education Essay Special education only began when parent-organized groups started advocating for disabled children’s rights. Prior to this, disabled children were considered crippled, dump, mentally defective or feeble-minded, (J. E. Wallace Wallin, 1924). They were therefore excluded from education in public institutions. By 1975, more than half of disabled children were denied an opportunity to education. (William N. Myhill, 2004) However, during the 1950s and 1960s several parent-organized groups of advocacy emerged. Such groups included the American Association on Mental Deficiency, Muscular Dystrophy Association, and Mental Retardation Panel by John F. Kennedy among others. These groups’ advocacy necessitated establishment of schools for children with disabilities, both at the local and state levels. The advocacy also led to state’s concern for special education. Several legislations that aimed at development and implementation of programs for the needs of children with disabilities and their families were also passed. In 1958, 1959 and 1961 three laws; PL 85-926, PL 86-158 and the Teachers of the Deaf Act, respectively were passed. These laws helped in the training of teachers who to work with the mentally disabled and the deaf. In 1965 the state also approved the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and the State Schools Act. With these acts in place, states got access to grant funds for the education of children with disabilities (James J. Cremins, 1983). The United States Congress also approved the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA) in 1975. This law was to protect the rights of children with disabilities and their families. The law later became the legislative foundation through which special education received federal funding (James J. Cremins, 1983). In 1997 and 2004 the EHA was re-authored and renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), changing the procedures for disability identification and demanding for high standards of qualification for teachers of special education. IDEA advocated for a Free and Appropriate Education (FAPE) to every student. Court cases have also been vital in shaping of special education. For instance, the Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) challenged the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in 1971 for the exclusion of mentally handicapped from public schools. The courts ruled out this discrimination. This case extended into 1972, with a ruling that children with disabilities be given education irrespective of its cost following a case filled by Mills against the District of Columbia (William N. Myhill, 2004) In 1998, Honig filed a case against Doe when two students were suspended for disruptive conduct resulting from their disabilities. The court ruled that students could not be punished for a disability-related misbehavior. As well, three different cases; Diana v State Board of Education (1970), Hobson v Hansen (1967-1968) and the Larry P.  v Riles case filled in 1979, sort a ruling on disability tests. The court ruled out the use of IQ, culturally biased and language-biased tests whose use to place a student in special education class was common. Special education has undergone remarkable transition; from the time when disabled children were simply ignored to today when a good number of programs for these children have been developed (James J. Cremins, 1983). There are now numerous professionals who evaluate children with disabilities and place them into the best conditions for their learning. References James J. Cremins, (1983). Legal and Political Issues in Special Education4–5 J. E. Wallace Wallin, (1924). The Education of Handicapped Children Losen, Daniel J. Orfield, Gary (2002), Introduction to Racial Inequality in Special Education. The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University: Harvard Education Press. William N. Myhill, (2004). No FAPE for Children with Disabilities in the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Time to Redefine a Free Appropriate Public Education, 89 Iowa L. Rev. 1051, 1055.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Intercultural communication language

Intercultural communication language CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction A literature review refers to any collection of materials on a topic, not necessarily the great literary texts of the world. The literature review is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge on a particular topic. The literature review can be just a simple summary of sources, but it usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis. Therefore, this chapter will discuss published information in a particular subject area. In addition, this research also will discuss sometimes information in a particular subject area within a certain time period. This chapter details the relevant secondary data obtained to present various works published by various authors in many different countries. The literature review usually precedes a research proposal, methodology and results section. This chapter is organized according to several components. This chapter will focus on the intercultural communication is affected by language use in un iversity for different ethnic groups. The independent variables like languages proficiency, language conflict, acculturation motivation to learn, and interaction potential about communication languages and too much documentation will be studied.(Virginia, 2002) Definitions Language A language is considered to be a system of communication with other people using sounds, symbols and words in expressing a meaning, idea or thought. This language can be used in many forms, primarily through oral and written communications as well as using expressions through body language (APA Style, 2009). Ethnic groups The term ethnic means of or pertaining to a group of people recognized as a class on the basis of certain distinctive characteristics such as religion, language, ancestry, culture or national origin (Babylon, 1997). Intercultural communication This is in many ways similar to group communication, but the role of groups is taken by ethnic cultures. However, as it is used in communication studies, intercultural communication tends to describe the relations between members of different ethnic groups and languages, and interacting in an international context (Kwintessential, 2009). Efficiency A relatively efficient process either requires fewer inputs or produces more outputs compared to a similar process, to achieve the objectives of the process (Dave Chaffey, 1997a). Effectiveness Effectiveness is very similar to efficiency, but the measure is related to some enterprise objective rather than the technical quality of output. Therefore, the effectiveness measure of a business process can be indicated by the resource inputs needed to produce a level of an enterprise objective (Dave Chaffey, 1997b). Teamwork spirit A joint action by two or more people, in which each person contributes with different skills and express his or her individual interests and opinion to the unity and efficiency of the group in order to achieve common goals (Buzzle, 2000). Independent variables A manipulated variable in an experiment or study which is the presence or degree determines the change in the dependent variables. The independent variable is the element that is subject to arbitrary (not random) change, in order to test the results. An independent variable is a hypothesized cause or influence on a dependent variable. One way to distinguish these variables is to ask yourself what you are wanted to learn from this research (Wikipedia, 2009). Language proficiency Refers to the degree to which the student exhibits control over the use of language, including the measurement of expressive and receptive language skills in the areas of phonology, syntax, vocabulary, and semantics and including the areas of pragmatics or language use within various domains or social circumstances. Proficiency in a language is judged independently and does not imply a lack of proficiency in another language (Wren, 2009). Acculturation The exchange of cultural features that results groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first hand contact; the original cultural patterns of either or both groups may be altered, but the groups remain distinct (Kottak, 2007). Motivation Motivation is defined as communicating to an internal force that actuates a behavioral pattern, thought process, action or reaction. Negative forces or positive forces can act as actuators (Speechmastery, 2009). Language Proficiency Martin and Nakayama (1999), communication is the most rewarding one as well teaching us that culture always changes and the most important quality for work on intercultural society. Because of the internal and external influences, intercultural communication is important because people from different cultures have been encountering each other. Communication is a interpretive, symbolic, transactional, contextual process of difference between people is large and important to create dissimilar interpretations and expectations about the regarded as competent behaviors that should be used to create shared meanings. The theories in philosophy of languages will make a distinction between two communicative challenges (Hale and Wright, 1997; Ludlow, 1997). The first concerns need to have a platform of a shared language (Burge, 1979; Peacock, 1992). According to Fodor (1992) and Nordby (2003), imagine the reindeer herder and some government official can represents the interests of the public having a dialogue about the idea of turning the relevant areas into national parks. The way to understand language is shaped by the overall beliefs and socio-cultural contexts. It is obvious that the herders and the officials respective understandings the sufficiently similar for their associating and the same meaning with the same expressions (Burge, 1979). Most respondents believe that the proficiency of language is Latvias inhabitants must know the Latvian language. More than two year, they need to improve their Latvian language. Thus the attitude of Latvian language is positive. This is supported towards growing the proficiency in Latvian among non-Latvians. Inhabitants of Latvia may improve inter-ethnic relationships, constant process and, promote the process of integration and communication between each others (Bratt, 1994). The communicative similarities and differences across cultures provide is to understand the cross-cultural misunderstandings occur, and misunderstanding can be reduced in future intercultural encounter. The individual made the communicative adaptations when they move between cultures provides cross-cultural adaptation models, and they can informative indexes to understand cross-cultural newcomers dynamic status of intercultural transformation (Kim, 2001). According to Bartlett and Johnson (1998), the English is a sort of creoles language. It is more difficult for native speaker rather than non-native ones to understand. The use of English in multinational companies is that able to master the foreign languages tend to centralize communication within the company. Because of the few problems they have in making acquaintance with all kinds of people and interacting with then in a competent ways. This centralization of communication is often associated with a concentration of power into the hands of who can cope with communication in an autonomous way. Therefore, language skills may become an important tool in internal company politics with consequent significant strategic potentialities. Students learn second language may possesses skills ranging from conversational fluency acquired from contacts with the second language-speaking world to formal knowledge obtained in second language as a foreign language classes in their countries of origin. For example, High schools students are learning English as a second language in U.S. classroom. The extent and type of prior knowledge is an essential consideration in planning instruction. For example, a student with informal conversational English skills may have little understanding of English grammatical systems and may need to specific instruction in English grammar (Eric, 2000). Language Conflict In different social-cultural contexts, teachers and students face different challenges, such as power and control, local structural conditions, language policies, ideology, and discursive rules that generate practice of inclusion and exclusion (Bertein, 1996; Phillpsom, 2001). Teachers and students in a foreign context will lack familiar frames of references. Therefore, they may find the situation such as unfriendly, unwelcome, inhospitable, and confusingly varied and unpredictable (Holliday, 1994) and may fail to recognize and meet both experiences, public, and personal theories may often lead to misunderstanding and frustration. According to Dyke (1985), the language conflict is a worst problem in Latvia. Regarding this conflict, the psychological factors are importance because Latvian language is a national symbol of Latvians as an ethnic group. Besides that, a part of Russians and Russian speakers the reversal from dominant to minority position is not acceptable. In the Baltic Data House survey data, the language conflict between Latvian speakers and Russian speakers is most obvious. Stereotypes of the ethnic identities, the all ethnic are a rapist rejects the suggestion that this applies to personally act as catalyst of misunderstanding and communication difficulties. By dissociating, these stereotypes the interviewees support the argument that not all member of an ethnic group are alike. The ethnic groups are heterogeneous, and then the conflict of language will easy occur in the group (Bennett, 2004). In intercultural communication, people often believe for granted because they have grown up in the culture and think their way is the best. In this case, they tend to transfer their own cultural values and beliefs to the situation of intercultural communication as guidelines for their behavior, so that misunderstandings or ineffective communication arise. Jensen and Longreen (1995), the negative transfer of deep-structure culture arises in such aspects as cultural values, thought patterns, religious beliefs and ethnics. Turner (1982), in different ethnic groups has a different value on group membership or individual self-determination. As a result, a member of ethnic group may think someone from a different ethnic group with different values for politeness is rude. When this misunderstanding is occur without correction, this situation can escalate into a negative labeling of all members in the group. This can be a major source of negative ethnic stereotypes. Worldwide migration induces multicultural contact in societies, including health care. The multicultural contacts and communication are often complicated by language barriers, and obstructions are caused by different culturally defined views and perceptions. According to Kleinman, (1995) both physician and patient need to exchange each others perceptions about the patients illness in order to achieve understanding and agreement about diagnosis and treatment. Lack of understanding and agreement is assumed to lead to less compliance and a reduction in perceived quality of care. Communicating in English is confronted with a psycho-cognitive situation where his/her native linguistic and cultural schemata conflict with the English schemata dominant in international professional communities. Forced to negotiate and redefine cultural, the identity is to successfully communicate in international and intercultural settings. Furthermore, cultural interaction in international communities and organizations suggest the possibility of hybrid communicative schemata in which a new set of cultural values and identities-functional to communication in the wider community. This is created in response to communicate internationally. This is a counterpart of the ongoing process of economic globalization of which it is both an expression and an instrument. (Hofstede, 1991) Stranger person will commonly interaction the stereotyping (Gudykunst, 2005). When people are group, they will perform the positive or negative evaluations to these groups. Turner (1982), groups with people identify are evaluated positively or negatively. This is regularly recognized as ethnocentric attitudes, biased, or prejudice (Togeby, 1997; Brown, 1995). According to Tajfel (1978), the negative evaluations can create problems in an interaction when people need a positive self-image. Acculturation and Motivation to learn According to Chan (1997); Kennedy (2002); and Hu (2002), it is well acknowledged that Chinese students are extremely diligent, high achieving, hardworking, respectful, cooperative, trustworthy, persevering, and disciplined. Chinese students learning seriously and they show the respecting for the English native speakers in a hope to learn real English and get the best from them (Boyle, 2000). In their learning, Chinese students tent to exhibit a high degree to improve their knowledge of both western culture and the English language through diligent study and practice, and this can be a very stimulating motivation from a teacher. Trueba (1988) argued that the conditions for effective learning are created only when the role of culture is recognized. The used in the settings is under which learning are taking place. The environments should recognize the importance of culture in specific instructional settings and attempt to integrate the home and school cultures into the teaching pedagogy. When cultural conflicts arise, they should be resolved instead of being dismissed. A research study on the cultural identities of an ethnic group in China called the Miao. The undergraduate students of Miao and their life in the university, is an institution dominated by the majority Han Chinese and revealed that even when placed in a different learning environment. The strong cultural identity of the Miao students allowed them to draw on this affiliation for an increased motivation to succeed academically. Learning a second language is not detract. In fact, it is enhanced their pride in their identity and strong affiliation to their ethnic group. This study is important implications because it shows that being empowered in a new learning environment and do not necessitate forsaking ones own culture and language; indeed their empowerment in a new society depended on their being Miao and retaining their identification and affiliation with Miao traditions, culture and language (Trueba and Zou 1994). The importance of the host language in intercultural communication is self-evident. Effective of cross-cultural communication can take place when the language appropriate to a given society is as least minimally used and comprehended. According to Taft (1957), The function of language in intercultural communication is to facilitate ones cultural learning and to permit maximum group participation. Research has largely supported the generalization that the learning of the host language accelerates acculturation (DeFleur and Cho, 1957; Breton, 1964; Chance, 1965; Richmond, 1967; Graves, 1967; Price, 1968). Similarly, fluency in English is considered to be the most important determinant of a sojourners exposure to the American mass media (Richmond, 1967). Cross-cultural communication is attempts to link the variations in communication behavior to the cultural contexts. It also provides the conceptual tools to understand culture and communication influences the communications. The latter is relatively a new area and seeks to understand the changes in individual communication behavior that are related to the process of acculturation and communication interaction. This approach has provided a substantial body of literature dealing with stages, patterns and outcomes of adjustment. Intercultural communication helps to comprehend daily events in the multicultural world from the depth of social-cultural, especially cross-cultural level (Ting-Toomey, 1993). According to Poppy et al. (1996), adapting to a new culture may be taken much time for newcomers. Children generally acculturate more rapidly and easily than their parents. It is important to note that there are varying degrees or levels of acculturation which students and their families may be experiencing at any point in time after arriving. The degree of acculturation can accelerate or delay learning in school. This is equally important that there is no right or wrong with regard to acculturation and any fix nature to any. The labels simply describe a cultural condition and psychological experienced in the process of acculturation. Since the 1980s, the concept of integrativeness has been extended to identification the general cultural and intellectual values associated with the speakers of other languages and the explaining the attraction toward languages in countries. Motivation is one of the most studied aspects of learning. Social psychologists working in Canadian bilingual programs, Robert and Wallace Lambert (1972) considered that the motivation is the primary enhancing or blocking communication between cultures. For many years, integrative motivation was regarded as the desirable motivation for foreign students. Alicia Pousada (2006), some Puerto Rican students being like Americans is important because they may attend English-only schools, listen to English language music, travel to the U.S. Some have U.S.-born and/or raised parents or relatives, and plan to live or study in the U.S. in the future. For others, English is viewed solely as a tool for obtaining a good job. Their motivation is instrumental rather than integrative, since there is little desire to emulate Americans, even though cultural imitation or syncretism may occur unconsciously. English and Americans are totally foreign, somewhat frightening, and perhaps repugnant, as they represent a perceived loss of local Puerto Rican mores and a form of cultural homogenization. Interaction Potential Intercultural communication competence can improve by the communication apprehension. Beamers model did not make a clear distinction between competence and sensitivity and targeting developing intercultural communication competence (Beamer 1992). In there studies, intercultural communication competence was treated generally as the knowledge, motivation, and skills for effective communication. (Spitzberg, 1989; Wiseman, 2001). Herring (1990) presented that nonverbal communication was part of communication. Cultural misunderstandings and miscommunications must be reduced and increasing the cultural differences awareness in nonverbal communication patterns. Herring noted that many ethnic groups use nonverbal communications to expressions their feeling and attitudes. The incorporation of nonverbal communication in current and new counseling techniques could result in more appropriate and effective cross-cultural counseling. Nowadays, the cultural competency is very important. We are not longer confined to out national and cultural borders. We mix with people from different cultures, ethnicity, religions and colours on a daily basis. According to Belay, (1993), to make this intercultural experience work on all levels from education to business and to the government, we have to develop basic skills in intercultural communication and understanding. Shorris (1992) makes the point that umbrella labels such as Latino obscure important differences between Latinos of different countries of origin, thus confronting standard concepts of ethnic groups. Bershtel and Graubard (1993) discuss the role of religion in defining ethnicity, and also challenges students to consider intersections between race and ethnicity. Ethnic identity is not a constant throughout the life course. Feiler (1991) served to cover Japanese culture. He wanted to reflect an international perspective and to bring the discussion of interaction of language and ethnicity outside of the American context. He also shows how one must understand the underlying logic of a culture, not just its language and local customs, and interaction potential between ethnic groups. Anderson (1990) serves to address both Euro-American and African American ethnic groups. In a study, he focused on interactions between Euro-American and African American ethnic groups in public spaces in an urban setting. He showed students how nonverbal communication works through the lens of ethnicity and colour, and how social class and race affect the use of public spaces and urban territories. Thomas (2000), inability to speak the same language presents significant obstacles to understanding will occur the stressful and it must be for the many international students in colleges and university throughout the United States who must expend considerable energy listening and trying to decipher the content of messages; little energy is available for the nuances and subtleties of the interaction. The important concept in intercultural studies is intercultural sensitivity. That has been confused or treated indiscriminatingly and not yet fully understood with intercultural communication competence and intercultural awareness (Chen and Starosta, 2000). Intercultural awareness, intercultural adroitness, and intercultural sensitivity is an umbrella concept that subsumes by intercultural communication competence and representing the cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspect of intercultural communication competence and respectively. The multidimensional conceptualization makes it possible into how knowledge, motivation, emotion, and behavior may interact with each other. These elements may contribute the overall level of intercultural communication competence of the communication subjects. Thus, the insightful clues for rigorous research and theoretical framework will development the effective training programs for intercultural sensitivity. Roux (2002) argued that successful educators are effective communicator and culturally competent in cross-cultural encounters. Communication can be a useful source of intercultural knowledge and mutual enrichment between culturally diverse students if managed proactively by the teacher. Therefore, teachers should be sensitive to the potentially problematic outcomes of intercultural communication in the culturally diverse class. Otherwise, communication could be a source of frustration, intercultural conflict, misapprehensions and ultimately school failure. Cross-cultural communication is complex and potentially problematic on education. A rich repertoire of verbal and nonverbal behavior to the intercultural situation will effective capabilities to react sensitively to fellow communicators from other cultures is a necessity in education (Linda, 1997). Chen (2002) explored perceptions of intercultural interaction. The study addressed the connection between perceptions of intercultural communication and intercultural interaction satisfaction. The most common aspect that was realized the inability of the students to identify mutual topics of mutual interest. This was probably mutual the lack of familiarity with the partners culture. This factor was labeled common ground to reflect this characteristic of intercultural communication. Communication satisfaction was affective construct that reflected participants emotional reaction toward their interaction. In terms of the degree it had met or failed to their expectation. The competent intercultural communication was predicted the high communication satisfaction. Summary The beginning of this chapter two is basically about the brief overview flow of the chapter. Then followed by the discussion on informational literature review which the main content of this chapter. In this section, it focuses on past research that provides useful information for the progress and development in this research paper. In addition, it also exposed the readers with the knowledge and understanding towards the intercultural communication that is affected by language use in university for different ethnic group. After that, this chapter goes on with the relationship between the independent variables and dependent variable of this research, which is a really short and simple summary for the extensive literature review. Finally, this chapter ends with the summary for this whole chapter.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Martin Luther Reformation Essay -- essays research papers

Martin Luther: Reformer Martin Luther was born in Eisieben, Germany, on November 10,1483, St. Martin’s Day. He was the son of Has Luther, a coal miner, and Margarethe. Martin’s parents were of the middle class and were unbending in their disciplinary acts. He attended the best schools in his region but all of them held to the barbaric discipline system of the times. This had a big impact on Martin’s personality. But he did receive some positive influence from his home environment. His parents were very pious people and brought him up to be one too. His parents also gave him a strong sense of superstition. At the age of 14 Luther went to grammar school at Magdeburg. There he got attracted to the Church and particularly the Lollards. Then in 1498 he moved to Eisenach and came in contact with a warmer church life than he was use too. He also made some important friends here including Fran Ursula Cotta. He really started going into the Church works when he attended the University at Erfurt. He was a very diligent student and quickly rose through the academic ranks. Meanwhile his father upon hearing of his son’s achievements had great hopes for him. Luther was preparing to be a lawyer to some prince or town after he received his degree in philosophy. But halfway through his training he decided to quit and take up life permanently in an Augustine monastery.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Historians speculate on why such a successful young man would want to join the monastery. Historians believe a string of events led Luther to choose the path of the Church. Being superstitious, Luther might have thought that this was god trying to get him to join the monastery. Luther made hid decision to go into the monastery during a thunderstorm. A bolt of lightening hit just a few feet away from him and threw him up into the air. He saw this as an act of god and joined the monastery. Later he and his father would look back and wonder whether it was God or the devil.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  His methods of teaching were a bit unorthodox but had a natural talent for speaking to the masses that listen to him. He often used vulgar language in his classes and had liberal ideas that he preached. His vulgarity came from a few things. First of all he was constipated and often talked about it in class. He rel... ...ed that Catholic services be followed. It also outlawed the practice of Lutheran services in all the Catholic States. The angered many of the Lutheran princes and nobles and said they would Protest this unfair decree. From this Protest came the term Protestant, or a person who protests against the Catholic Church. Charles V never seriously enforced the edict and allowed the Lutheran countries to continue their reforms. A group of Protestant Princes and Cities came together and formed the Schmalkaldic League named after they city in which the first meeting of their league was held. Also in 1530 another diet was called and the Lutheran princes decided to put their complaints in writing so they sent a scholar named Philipp Melanchuthon to what was called the Augsburg Confession. The Augsberg Confession was the systematic statement of the Lutheran belief. The Confession was written as uncontroversial as possible. Charles handed the Confession to a team of theologians to analyze and t heir report stated that the Church did indeed have some problems. Charles said that he would help correct the problems of the Church and that he hoped the Protestants would rejoin the Church. They did not.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Nicolo Pignatelli and Gulf Italia: Case Analysis Essay

1. Pignatelli should first and foremost properly assess the ethical dilemma he faces. The problem before him comes down to the decision between two outcomes both with their share of benefits and risks. He can follow guidelines by waiting several months to receive a response from the Italian government while losing millions of dollars and risking his reputation and fate of his company if the government decides to not allow Gulf Italia to refine at full capacity. On the other hand he can attempt to pay someone off either directly or indirectly, a potential illegal activity, and more quickly have his company produce at full capacity, preserving his reputation without losing money and securing the jobs of his many workers. Because this is an ethical dilemma, a straight forward decision is not possible and a careful consideration of the factors must be taken. No code of ethics is mentioned in the case description, so a measurement of the moral intensity factor will be more relevant. The magnitude of the consequences leans more in favor or Pignatelli paying someone off because the employment of thousands of his workers is as stake and because the risks are not as high as imagined. It is mentioned that this practice is common in Italy despite it being illegal. The social consensus also leans in favor of Pignatelli paying someone off because of the fate of his workers and also because he has gone to great lengths to satisfy the local communities already in moving the location around five times and implementing cleaner technology at a higher expense to his company. The probability of effect also leans in favor of paying someone off because it seems as if his company is not doing any harm but rather is being harmed by the limitations placed by the Italian government. Proximity also leans in favor of paying someone off because his reputation is at stake and he could very well lose everything if he decides to wait it out. For these reasons Pignatelli should either pay someone off or ask Mobil to put pressure on decision makers. Although the bribe option is illegal, that should be the last choice he makes after he tries paying someone connected to take care of it and having Mobil work on the problem as well. If I were in his position, I would do as I have just recommended, but only in the context of what his situation was. It seems as if Pignatelli was under intense pressure to lead his company, to ensure the livelihoods of his workers and to turn a profit. On top of this, it seems almost unfair that his company was promised one thing then given another. 2. If Pignatelli does not pay the bribes directly, it does not absolve him from responsibility because of accountability. If he did not need to have someone indirectly paid off in the first place for a specific reason, then no bribe of that matter would have ever taken place. If Pignatelli ended up paying someone to bribe someone else and the authorities found out, the chain would lead back to Pignatelli and he would most certainly be held accountable for the activity. 3.  The argument that asks if it is justifiable to illegally bribe someone because it is common practice has two sides. On one hand it is simply illegal, should not be done, and will be prosecuted if discovered. However on other side, one could ask the question, is a law really a law if it is not enforced and under what circumstances, if any, would it ever be okay to break that law? If someone is to consider the second stance, they would have to consider the moral and philosophical implications of what justice is. For the example of Pignatelli, if he is doing nothing morally wrong, in fact he is actually creating a commodity for the world to use while ensuring the livelihoods of many of his employees, is it justifiable for him to break the law to ensure that he can maintain his operation? The answer to this question depends on the viewer and what he or she personally believes and defines as justice. I personally believe that justice is a moral virtue which is delineated and refined through the judicial system, and that laws can change over time. I believe that bribing to get something unfairly in return is morally wrong, but I believe that in the case of Gulf Italia because the government already gave him the go ahead to refine oil, then suddenly cut it back, there is a tremendous desire to look more closely at the situation. If his company is more than qualified, and the government made an irrational decision, I believe that in this particular case, that a bribe to ensure the flow of so much else would be justifiable. 4.  Pignatelli does not necessarily have a responsibility to go above and beyond environmental requirements. This does not mean that he could actually go above and beyond. It all depends on his management style. If he believes in social responsibility, then he would go above and beyond. If he believes in efficiency, he would only do what is the bare minimum to pass the requirements. Whether it is appropriate or not for Gulf to spend extra money thereby taking it away from shareholders also depends on his management style. If he believes in social responsibility then he would see it in the sense that he owes something back to society because without it, his company would not exist, and therefore he would take money from his shareholders to enact policies towards social responsibility. However if he believes in efficiency, he would see his responsibility as an owner and manager to maximize profits to the other owners and shareholders because that is basically his job and that issues pertaining to social responsibility are better left the government. 5. Considering the context of the case, I would be perfectly fine.  If I were an Italian working for a huge Italian conglomerate, I would most typically think that one vice in exchange for much good is tolerable. Going back on my response to question 3, my ethical obligations in any other case of bribery would lead me to a moral dilemma. If I were working for a finance company and found out that my bonus was directly correlated to a senior partner bribing someone, I would most likely protest and revolt. However if I were a lower-middle class Italian laborer with a secure and promising job, I would not see it as a bad thing what the owner did which in a way he did to guarantee my pay and security.