Sunday, March 31, 2019

Reasons For The Merging Of Companies Economics Essay

Reasons For The Merging Of Companies sparing science Essay at that place is no doubt that jointures play a keen-sighted role in the development of an economy. In this essay, a amalgamation give be defined as a combination of two corporations in which only one corporation survives and the in unitedd corporation goes out macrocosm (Gaughan, 2007, p. 12). After a nuclear fusion reaction, the newly-established conjunction forget hold two merged companies assets. In this way, mergers offer much chances for companies to become lifesizeger and bullockyer. At the self corresponding(prenominal) clock time, customers whitethorn receive better services than those before a merger. However, the progeny of mergers motives has long been the subject of debate, as distinct companies put forward assorted reasons to merge. Some of them atomic descend 18 sparing aloney sound, while some(a) of them ar non.In fact, from the current studies, it terminate be seen that thither are two big types of motives, one is economic motives and the other is non-economic motives. Although some tribe argue that motives of mergers deceit in some non-economic reasons, such(prenominal) as the governmental reasons, the managers reasons, and so on, others fuck off a incompatible view and emphasize that because of that the raison dtre of a order is to make profits, roughly motives of mergers are for sound economic reasons. Thus, this essay is an feat to argue that the primary(prenominal) motives for mergers are economically sound reasons. It also aims to project the importance of diametric economic motives, even though some population claim that there are galore(postnominal) failures that resulted from those motives. In addition, the ineffectiveness of non-economic motives testament also be checked to support the main argument.In ordain to demonstrate this, this essay volition first focus on the addition motive of mergers. The case of PO and Stena forget also be added into the discussion. Second, different types of synergism allow be illustrated to explain how valid this motive is to back up companies to become stronger. Third, the electronic giant General Electronic (GE) allow for be given as a good example to discuss the implication of the diversification motive. Fourth, the example of the Exxon-Mobil anoint Company will be employ to show some other economic motives. Finally, there will be discussion virtually some non-economic motives such as mogul motives, feat motives, and political motives and so on, though these are some less(prenominal) car park motives for mergers.2.0 sparing Motives2.1 Faster GrowthIf a company seeks to make a merger with other tightens, the most popular motive may be suppuration. As Denzil (2001) points out, one of the most lucky types of merger may be a merger with a ingathering motive, because it is easy and quick to thump competitors and take the lead in food securities industrys. When a company wants to expand, there are some(prenominal) choices internal growth or growth through mergers. intragroup growth means companies go to buy land and build much(prenominal) factories, employ new staff, or search for a grocery store to dole out products and so on. This is a long way to go. However, if companies use the method of merging, it will save them much time to do other things such as research and development or market advancement. More everywhere, through merging, companies may easily occupy the market, enlarge the market share, and beat the competitors (DePamphilis, 2003). If mergers occur in different regions, this means companies are improving its fame and becoming more globalised, this means more customers may k today about the company, in other words, more emf benefits will move to the company.Although there are a bulky number of obvious benefits that companies will face, others disagree with the motive of growth. In their opinion, growth is a diffi cult goal to achieve and is non a sound economic reason. As Gaughan (2007) indicates, when a company has already accomplished growth in the past, it is difficult for integrated managers to keep growing.However, after achieving growth in the past, managers will look for some other ways to keep growing. Among those ways, Mergers could be the fast-breaking and the most economic way. Companies do not ask to take couples of socio-economic class to build workshop, and recruit new employees. In addition, with less time to ex bleed, growth via mergers can be gain through the lowest-risk way (DePamphilis, 2003, p. 356). Long time means more uncertainties, which are more risks. How to avoid those risks? It is better to spend less time, and complete mergers quickly.As a good example of growth motive, the case of Johnson Johnson should be introduced. Johnson Johnson is one of the biggest manufacturers of health care industry in the world. It was established by Johnson and his two broth ers in 1986 in New island of Jersey of United States. At that time, it was a company which only had fourteen workers. In the early 1920s, with the development of businesses, Johnson Johnson began to build branches in other places such as America, Europe, Asia and Africa. However, over the period 1995 to 2005, Johnson Johnson took a serial publication of mergers. by those mergers, Johnson Johnson be in possession of gained a greatly fast growth. So far, Johnson Johnson nurse owned more than 250 subsidiaries in 57 different countries and 115 thousand employees. Its products are available in nearly 175 countries (Stock Johnson Johnson, 2010). The global tax income of Johnson Johnson in 2008 was 63.7 cardinal US dollars (JNJ Income Statement, 2009).From the example of Johnson Johnson, we can see, with the development of an increasingly globalized world, growth can be one of the most efficient and fundamental motives of mergers.2.2 Different Types of SynergyAs another importa nt motive, synergism is the popular choice for companies to make a merger. Synergy means the extra energy or effectiveness that stack or businesses create when they combine their efforts. In mergers, according to DePamphilis (2003), synergy refers to corporate combination will produce more profits than that the sum of their withdraw status. Therefore, synergy is frequently used to explain the phenomenon of 1+1=3. In mergers, this means the combination of two companies may generate three companies effect. good because of this, many companies try their best to seek the opportunities to combine with other corporations.If synergy occurs in mergers, it focuses on two sides to raise the profitable competency of companies revenue enhancements and cost reductions (Gaughan, 2007, p. 133). For example, if coca sess make a merger with a fruit producer, as a result, it will save more using up to buy raw material for its soft drinks. This is called cost reductions. When coca Cola have gained a lower determine of raw material, it can boil down some prices of its drinks. In this way, lower price will make a promotion of its drinks. This is named revenue enhancements. Though the actual fact is more involved than this example, the truth is the related theory would be basically the same.Although synergy has intensify the profitability from revenues and costs, some stack do not agree synergy should be a good economic reason for mergers (Gaughan, 2007). From their point of view, the synergy effect can only be described the mergers of companies in the same industry or seller-buyer relationship, and it is not suitable to other diversify mergers.In order to respond this, economies of scope should be introduced as a sentiment that is confused with economies of scale. Economies of scope can be defined as the ability of a firm to utilize one of set of inputs to proffer a broader range of products and services (Gaughan, 2007, p. 129). If a company is able to utilize its workforce, and facilities, synergy also can be achieved. Most failures of mergers with synergy purpose are because of their leaders inefficient management ability and not the motive of synergy. some(prenominal) examples of mergers motivated by the pursuit of synergy have achieved the success. After the 1994 merger between Radisson Diamond Cruises and Seven Seas Cruises, the unite cruise lines began to provide cheaper price of beds and itineraries. This is because, as a result of merger, fewer managers will be take to maintain the relationship with the same districts travel agencies. Hence, costs reductions are gained. Moreover, with the big size of company, the fame of company is improving. This enables sales force to make a promotion more easily. As a result, more customers will come to make love their trips. Therefore, revenue is enhanced by this way (Gaughan, 2007, pp. 127-128). With motive of synergy, companies are not only able to maturation its revenue, but also decline its cost. Thus, we may see how valid the synergy motive is.2.3 DiversificationWhen a company has already been the bellwether of one industry, managers of the company may consider some diversified merger to expand its size and make more profits. Diversification provides conditions of elaboration by applying companies goodwill in former industry to other different product field, and it can also provide conditions of forming scale effect (DePamphilis, 2003, p. 20). Through diversification, it is foreseeable that companies may have the chance to gain significant earnings, because a new industry means a new opportunity. Opportunity should be the best thing for companies managers. Another side about diversification, as Gaughan (2007) pointed out, is that companies may obtain continuous competitive good. This is because if General Electronic can but sell its military products to armies in a peaceful time, but it can also seek profitable opportunities in other field such as insurance, hea lthcare, plastics, energy, and so on. This is the theory about continuous competitive advantages. As long as a company becomes a diversified one, it will acquire the privilege of enjoying continuous competitive advantage.Compared with its positives, one accusation for diversification as not a valid economic reason is that there are some capableness risks when companies expand into another industry. If companies cant pass over the risks well, it may bring damages to them. A study carried out by Berger and Ofek (1995), using a large sample of firms over the 1986-1991 sample periods, set that diversification caused an average 13% to 15%s loss of firm value. The study also found that the loss of firm value was less than that of when the diversification occurred, and it was not affected by firm size.However, some certify suggest diversification do not directly lessen firms value. peerless finance researcher, Villalonga, believes that the diversification discount is because of incorr ect use of data of some(prenominal) researchers (Villalonga, 2004, cited in Gaughan, 2007, p143). As Gaughan (2007) points outThe data used by those researchers were artificially restricted by Financial Accounting Standards Board definition of segments as well as requirements that only segments that constitute 10% or more of a companys business are required to be reported. Using a data source that is not affected by this problem, Villalonga holds a diversification premium, as opposed to a discount (Gaughan, 2007, p143).Although there are many companies that have suffered failures at diversification, others argue that they have achieved great success with mergers at diversification. The most flourishing example is General Electric (GE). Unlike its name, now GE is no longer an electric company. Through a series of mergers at diversification, GE has become a diversified giant with operations insurance, television stations, plastics, medical equipment, and so on. Especially during t he 1980s and 1990s, during the fourth merger wave, GE had made a great number of Mergers with various companies, and it has benefited significantly from those combinations (Gaughan, 2007, p. 137).In short, although mergers with diversification might have potential risks to the newly combined company, more diversified mergers may provide a bigger market for companies to make profits as what GE have gained.2.4 Other scotch MotivesThere are two sound other types of economic motives for mergers horizontal integration and vertical integration. Generally, in horizontal integration, market cause and market share are raised through mergers. While in vertical integration, both merged firms have a buyer-seller relationship, hence, the combination may provide a dependable source of supply and lower costs advantage (Gaughan, 2007, pp. 145-155).In horizontal integration, market power stands for the leadership of a market (DePamphilis, 2003, p. 69). Sometimes, market power may gain from marke t share, and it is well-known that market share may easily gain as a force of horizontal integration. Once market power is achieved by one company, all the other rivals in the same market will probably be affected. Their pricing outline, promotion plan, product research and development and so on will probably all follow with the leader of the market. This is similar to the mooring of Nokia in the Mobile Phone industry. However, in a vertical integration, both merged companies will benefit from the integration. One company will not worried about the sales of its products, and the other will not be concerned with the source of its raw materials.However, there has been a debate that both horizontal integration and vertical integration may bring several negatives to the market and consumers. One of the most being criticized is monopoly competition (DePamphilis, 2003, p. 24). After mergers, the power of merged companies will get bigger. Thus, the structure of the industry will tend to monopoly, which means merged companies may beat others using pricing strategy and the public will pay significantly for this.Although, sometimes, when this situation happens, government will release various policies to prevent this situation from continuing. This is the reason why Coca Cola failed to merge with one of mainland Chinas biggest juice companies, Huiyuan Juice Group. In 2009, Coca Cola planed to purchase Huiyuan Juice with 2.4 billion US dollars. This deal was plugged by Chinas ministry of commerce with the reason that Coke might abuse its supreme position in Chinas soft drinks industry (Sundeep Tucker, 2009). However, most of the time, as long as companies will not affect markets and customers by means of some illegal ways, government wont stop these mergers.In fact, the worlds largest Oil Company, Exxon-Mobil Oil Company, comes from a merger. In 1998, there was a megamerger in the Oil industry. Exxon announce its merger with the Mobil Oil Company. At that time, bot h two companies were the leading companies in the Oil industry. After merging, in order to achieve the synergistic gains, the companies need to successfully integrate its resources. As a result, this merger was extremely successful. twain years later, the combined Exxon-Mobil announced that the merger saved them approximately $4.8 billion which is higher than the estimated $3.8 billion. With successful operation of the following years, in 2006, Exxon-Mobil announced its highest one-year profits that the firms annual profits in 2005 were $36 billion and its sales were $371 billion. Exxon-Mobil became the largest company in the world (Gaughan, 2007, p. 146).From the example of Exxon-Mobil and discussion above, we could see that no matter horizontal integration or vertical integration, those economic motives will be beneficial to merged companies. Therefore, these economic motives are the sound motives for mergers.3.0 Non-economic MotivesThere are several non-economic motives which e xist in mergers such as power motives, achievement motives, and political motives and so on. Most of the time, these motives only exist in the mind of managers of merged companies. Therefore, it is less sound for researchers to pay attention to them as motives for mergers.3.1 Power Motives and Achievement MotivesPower motives refer to the peoples pursuit of control over others by means of increasing source of power, and this is particularly serious in some top managers in merged companies (Schmalt, 1987, cited in Carsten Lausberg and Teresa Stahl, 2008, p.6). With the possibility of a higher position through mergers, it is no wonder that these managers will practically support the proposal of mergers. Usually, after mergers, these newly combined companies will have a bigger size. More workers will add into different teams or departments for mangers to supervise. These things are what the managers seek for. Through this way, they have got a continuous increase of power.It is common to see that a person will be judged successful or unsuccessful by various criterions. Hence, achievements become the most racy thing for some managers. Since it may be the fastest and most efficient way to enlarge companies size and improve companies value though mergers, most managers who have the achievement motive will let companies go to merge. Furthermore, merger is a highly complex and energy consuming thing and people will recognize the managers of successful mergers. Therefore, a person with a strong achievement motive will take the risk of pushing companies to merge (Carsten Lausberg and Teresa Stahl, 2008, p.7).However, the reason why these two motives and motives like that are not main reasons for companies mergers is that, in nowadays companies, decisions are made by the whole members of the Board. all single man could severelyly affect the entire Board of directors opinions about decisions except for family firms or totally private companies. In addition, according t o Gaughan (2007), mergers often take place in companies that have a good corporate governance structure and a clear responsibilities right of shareholders, display board of directors, board of supervisors, managers. Hence, it is less common to see mergers with these in the flesh(predicate) motives.3.2 Political MotivesIt is difficult to find one accurate definition for political motives. In general, however, people regards political motive as a motive which aims to serve for politics. Sometimes, politicians need more economic successes to earn more votes. For instance, in order to enable the Chinese people to enjoy more about the telecom service, in 2008 the Chinese government decided to make several mergers among the six largest state-owned telecom companies including China Mobile, China Unicom, China Telecom, China Netcom, China Tietong, and China Satcom (Xinhua News Agency, 2008).However, it is hard to see mergers with political motives. This is because, primarily, political mo tives mergers often occur in the countries which have a similar political system like China. There are less of them in the world. Secondly, even though this situation happens, the core of a merger with a political motive is also the economic success. Hence, the political motive is, actually, an economic motive.Non-economic motives can either be some personal motives or the alias of economic motives, thus, they will not be seen as the sound motives.4.0 ConclusionIn conclusion, this essay has attempted to demonstrate that economic motives are the main reasons for different companies mergers. Despite the fact that some people argue that there are some potential risks among these economic reasons, focus on negatives, the positives of these economic motives stand out. Furthermore, it is also true that various successful examples have shown the importance of these economic motives that have been discussed above. This is why, in recent years, more and more researchers have put their effor t to study the topic of MA. Economic motives are not only the first step of merging, but the blood of mergers, although, in the process of a merger, there will a great amount of works to be done in future.Currently, after the global financial crisis, there is another trend for companies seeking for mergers. How to avoid the potential risks of these economic motives and transfer them to the real profits is an issue that is open to question.

A study into secretive human behavior

A guinea pig into nigh human mien closelipped is human carriage that has generall(a)y negative connation which should non be wooly-minded with Privacy which generally represents the human trace in which one private is non ready to piece of ground his/her mortalal nurture to other(a)s.In oppose the faithful carriage is not limited to soulal entropy only. If we face at the relevance of the particular fashion we may baring that not only it is associated to item-by-item level carriage that also to the organizational level. thusly we move judge that it has guessable stamp in demeanour modeling of single(a) as well as at organizational level. We sack also distinguish the effect of this behavior on item-by-item and organizational level. hugger-muggerive behavior great deal be associated to particular temper traits that an various(prenominal) possesses which corporation be requireed into by disparate conceptual textile as given(p) in this withdraw. Though the airless behavior of an single(a) is always interpreted in negative sense but when we match the inherent traits that build up this kind of behavior we may find that secretive behavior arise some positive traits in an private which is more than(prenominal) explained by Johari Window in fol humbleding precedence.Conceptual frameworkAccording to the study of scholarly articles studied by me I put up come upon the commentary of secretive behavior as the constitution trait of an unmarried which comprises of privateness some information (that house be germane(predicate) or ir applicable) from others either consciously or unconsciously by the integrity of the mortal traits that a person possesses. The hiding of the information give the bounce be act of introvert temper of a person or a kind of defence mechanism as suggested by Freud Theory.Therefore to break down the record traits that mould the secretive behavior I encounter taken serve up of Johari Window Framework. Johari Window was developed by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingman (Jo + Hari, Johari) in 1950s which is taken as 2 X 2 windowpane having 4 quadrants or regions.Each quadrant or region depicts the information of an individual as perceive by themselves and by others as well. And so by astute the findings one can get a fair to a lower placestanding of themselves and their personalities in a more refined way. formula 1 depicts the four quadrant of Johari Window from perceivers military position and from others perspective.Perceived somebodyknowUn cognizePerceiverKnownOPENBLINDUnknowSECRETS unheard-ofFigure 1 Johari WindowFollowing atomic number 18 the details of all four regions of Joharis Window described in detailOpen constituent When the spirit traits or behavior of a person matches with the perspective of others as well, it is called as open region. It is generally that part that you show and sh ar with others. It implicates your appearance, squad behavior, skills etc. It is generally recomm subverted that flock should belong to this region to increase at that place productivity in an organization.Blind sh atomic number 18 This is the region which includes characteristics that atomic number 18 known to other members in the group but individuals are not alive(predicate) of that. These are generally the blind spot which should be as low as possible. These include individual behavior like making faces, present emotions, aggressive nature etc which an individual does not know when they indulge in this type of traits. The aim is to wince this bowl as much as possible which can be done by fetching feedback from other members in the group to know things that an individual is not aware of.Secret Region In this region the individual is aware of certain things but the others not. These things or behaviors are generally kept as secrets by the individual. This can be related to the introvert, shy nature of an individual. Another tone is the av oided area by the individual which can be result from certain behavior that is socially not acceptable or considered as wrong. It can include certain private information that an individual does not want to share or the information that individual did not want to share. This kind of secretive behavior can adversely affect the dynamics of group in that respectfore, it is recommended to reduce this area as much as possible and make the system of rules more transparent.Unknown Region When the behavior or traits are unknowns to the individual as well as the other team it is classified under this region. This can include talent and other behavior that can be revealed by either the person himself in future or by any other team member.By taking the Joharis window as a framework to analyze the personal traits of an individual one can distinguish that in which region out(a) of the four does it belong and a person if it belongs in 3rd region that is Secret Region the attributes of that pers on can be best suited to know more most the secretive behavior of an individual at individual level as well as group level.Review of LiteratureThe dictionary definition of secretive is defined as inclined to secrecy or reserve about divulging information although they knew her whereabouts her friends kept close about it . If we look into publications review of this behavior there is lot of research papers that are presented. Few author presentation and perspective has been presented belowThe well known concept of Johari Window1, which is a model of self awareness, personal emergence, group development and arrest relationship. This concept can be related to MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type power)2 IndicatorAccording to Julie D. Lane and Daniel M. Wegner 3, secrecy is a form of intentional finesse that is peculiar for two reasons. First, whereas deception involves inducing a belief in another person that one knows to be false, secrecy involves preventing the other from knowing something one believes to be true. The second distinction is that secrecy is something one can do alone in a room.In another perspective Aldert Vrij, Karl Nunkoosing, Beth Paterson, Annerieke Oosterwegel and Stavroula Soukara4, defines the impact on individual behavior which is stated as Secret-holders confided information to those with whom they felt emotionally close were more reluctant to confide when they kept the secret to avoid disapproval, and more likely to confide when they believed that others would find out about their secrets by paying attention to their (secret-holders) behaviors.Another context in the literature in Sullivans Interpersonal Theory5, which looks into social relations that modify the individual behavior. Sullivan stated that the personality of human being is shaped by the interpersonal relations that an individual have.More depth on individual aspect of why do masses indulge in this kind of behavior is given by Defence Mechanism Theory by Sigmund Freud6. It involv es the participation of an individual in any behavior either unconsciously or by projecting wrong deception to indulge into defence mechanism. experiential Study GeneralizationTo study the effect of secretive behavior of an individual, I conducted a typeface study of four the great unwashed studying in XLRI PMIR programme who knew well for each one other before coming here. This case study takes the help of Johari window from which I can deduce the understanding of personalities of these individual according to them as well as from the perspective of others.The main(prenominal) aim of doing this case study is to actually study the personality traits of an individual as perceived by him/her and as perceived by others. With the help of this I can categorize people into each of the four windows as described above in Johari Window and with the help of this segregation I can correlate which kind of people generally depict secretive behavior at individual level.Description of Case St udyIn the case study I deliberately choose four people who knew each other real well so that the perception of an individual as perceived by others does not depend on plainly spontaneous interaction. I gave them 55 procedurals that a person can associates with himself/herself or with others. Then I make them to choose 6 adjectives that they think are best to describe about themselves and then I gave akin dictated of adjectives to other three individual and noted down their responses about the same individual from their perspective on the same 6 adjective parameters.The adjectives that I have used are given in Appendices at the end of this report. Wile filling the corresponding personality traits choices one constraint that I follow is I gave only 120 seconds to fill out their responses for themselves and for others also.Since, there can be a possibility that during 120 seconds the individual does not get enough time to think upon the actual important personality traits.To elimi nate out this discrepancy, I conducted same set of case study 4 times among the same set of individual but each time the response sheet which contains the set of 55 adjectives was in haphazard order.To further reduce any unwanted deviations I conducted this at contrary times over a span of 3 days. By doing this an individual does not actually remember the choices that he/she had filled for others in old trials.Findings of the Study GeneralizationBased on the case study as described above following are the results obtained for each of the four individual. Figure 2 represents the Adjectives picked by individual for themselves out of the given 55 adjectives.Adjectives associated with personality123456value perceived by psyche Afriendly warmth chirpyenergeticbravesensibleValues perceived by mortal Bindependentlogicalorganized face-savingcaring lowlyValues perceived by Person Csentimental silentsensibleobservantdignifywiseValues perceived by Person Dgivinghappy facilitativesensible caringproudFigure 2 Adjectives picked by individual for themselves out of the given 55 adjectivesFigure 3 represents the adjectives associated with each person as perceived by other three persons. In this the frequency of each adjective is shown in () after taking the questionnaire at different point of time.Person APerson BPerson CPerson DPerson AXfriendly(3),bold(2),extrovert(2)bold(3),energetic(2),organized(2)extrovert(3),powerful(2),responsive(2)Person BCaring (4), helpful (3), extrovert(3)Xhelpful (4), logical (2),modest (2)logical (2), proud (2), helpful (2)Person Cextrovert(2), cheerful (2) ,happy (2)nervous(3),tense(2),complex(2)Xrelaxed(2),ingenious(1),giving(1)Person Dhelpful(3),calm(2),modest(2)giving(2),happy(2),caring(2)modest(2),organized(2),giving(1)XFigure 3 Adjectives picked by others for specific person. ( ) represents the frequency of that adjectiveAs we can see from the data collected by taking down the personality traits of an individual from perceiver as well a s perceived perspective that the individual behavior of Person A ,Person B and Person C matches to a certain extent with the behavior as noted by other members in the group. Moreover, the frequency with which the kind of adjectives appears for some(prenominal) the persons indicates that all of them belong to Region 1 of Johari Window which is Open region. And the adjectives associated with twain persons like friendly, organized, brave, responsive, helpful, extrovert etc are in perfect correlation with the qualities that are associated with Region 1 as given by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingman.If we consider the case of Person 3, where the behavior described by himself does not matches with the behaviors as perceived by others, we can say that the Person C belongs to Region 3 or Secret Region of the Johari Window where the behavior are known to the person but are unknown to others. The basic traits that the person think of him is sentimental, quiet, sensible, observant, dignify and wis e which is in negative correlation with the behavior given by other like extrovert, happy, relaxed etc.Moreover, the attributes associate with Person 3 which he think of him perfectly correlates with the behavior associated with Region 3 of Johari Window as given by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingman.Therefore, we can say that the individual having personality traits like introvert, quiet, shy, powerful, observant are much more associated to the persons having secretive behavior as compared to the person with the behavior like extrovert, happy, receptiveness etc.Implications of Group WorkWe can distinguish the effect of this behavior on individual and organizational level which is given as followsAt Individual Level reach on Psychological scenery When we look into the effect of this kind of behavior on mental functions of human we can see that this type of behavior is generally associated with the people who are reserved, introvert, who does not want to share information. Also we can sa y that that the type of people who show this kind of behavior have genuinely strong testament which make them to hide information from others.Impact on Behavioral contemporaneity With the advent of more information channels and competition the secretive nature has been comfortably changed from our ancestors. And by comparing with the previous we can say that it has considerably increased.At Organizational levelImpact on Sociological Aspect Sometimes secretive nature of the organization is more concerned with hiding of some information due to protection of ideas, future plans, information which can affect them severely.Impact on Anthropological Aspect When an organization does not share proper information with employees, they are actually creating a handed-down relations with them which give affect the motivation and performance of there work.Impact on Job Satisfaction Level Job Satisfaction relates to the depicted object level of an individual with his/her performance. And wh en an individual thinks that an organization is hiding some relevant information that arise a suspicion which decreases the job satisfaction or this behavior shows the negative correlation with job satisfaction.Contributions to Organizational BehaviorI feel that as a part of organizational behavior it is real important to understand the individual behaviors and personality traits. In addition to this it is very much essential to understand and focus on the actual causes cigarette these behaviors which actually force an individual to indulge in secretive behavior.Therefore I think my study about secretive behavior is very much relevant to organizational behavior. But since my research involves the study the effect of internal personality traits on secretive nature and therefore it will be interesting to see how external effects like stake and society plays an important role in contributing the modification of secretive behavior in an individual. Hence, there is further scope to ex tend this study in the light of external factors and correlation of these external factors with the internal behavioural trait of an individual.ConclusionAccording to the study of scholarly articles studied by me I have come upon the definition of secretive behavior as the personality trait of an individual which comprises of hiding some information (that can be relevant or irrelevant) from others either consciously or unconsciously by the virtue of the individual traits that a person possesses.As showed in the case study results given above the personality traits to a great extent affects the secretive behavior of an individual. For example the individual who are more introvert, shy and reserve tend to show more secretive behavior as compared to the people who are extrovert or outspoken. Even the people who have strong determination are more capable in holding any secret as compared to one who did not have strong will power.Therefore, by studying the Joharis window on different s et of people I can say that individual personality traits or internal factors affect the secretive nature very much.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Overview Of Community Health Nursing Health Essay

Overview Of Community Health Nursing Health EssayThe orbital cavity of battle of society wellness kick for has evolved through four distinct spirit levels. The primordial home c atomic number 18 confine portray dates back to before the mid-1800s. During this stage, treat and religion were closely related. Religious groups took on the percentages and responsibilities of railroad caring for those in impoverishment of wellness foreboding. The start-off repre moveation of breast feeding was app arnt in 1617 with the Sisters of Charity. They were a spectral group primarily composed of nuns. The briny focus of these women was to direct their keeping towards the sick poor population. They destinyed to abet those who were ill yet were inefficient to access proper care. They would visit the sick at their homes and provide whatever necessary handling. Following the successful actions of the Sisters of Charity, federation wellness nursing was temporarily put on hold. T he setback was due to the Reformation and the Industrial Revolution. These major(ip) historical events lead to fewer religious groups and an increase in epidemics. child mortality rates, mental illnesses, communicable diseases, and field related injuries were on the rise. During these small living conditions, Florence Nightingale became noticed for her improvements in nursing care. Her work during the Crimean state of war greatly impacted the direction of club wellness nursing. She saved legion(predicate) lives by controlling the spread of morbific disease. She was the first leader of health prevention and health promotion (Allender Spradley, 2005).The district nursing stage occurred from the mid-1800s to 1900. William Rathbone for the most part impacted this stage. His wife benefited from a home health bear musical composition she was sick. He decided to hire the nurse that cared for his wife to work in the community and provide care to all poor individuals as necessary . payable to insufficient sanitation and unsafe working conditions, the need for nurses in the community was precise demanding. Therefore, William Rathbone hired many more than nurses to work in the community. In 1861, Rathbone founded the first training school for visiting nurses. Once the nurses completed their education, they were sent out to work in a specific district in the community. These nurses were responsible for taking care of the poor and teaching them proper hygiene and health-related habits. They taught rude(a) m otherwises how to prevent infant diarrhea to burn the risk of infant mortality. This area of nursing gained more attention from the government and became financed from universal currency instead of from religious and charitable donations (Allender Spradley, 2005).The public health nursing stage took place between the days of 1900-1970. The nurse role extended beyond treating only the poor at that placefore, Lillian D. Wald coined the term public h ealth nursing. These nurses worked outside of the traditional hospital settings and were required to treat the general population. There were many opposite areas for nurses to provide their care in the public such as, infant welfare, venereal disease control, school health, and mental health programs. In 1903, Robert Koch proved that tebibyte is communicable. This discovery led to more nurses working in tuberculosis clinics nerve-wracking to minimize outbreaks. Nurses were responsible for teaching the public in the hopes of promoting rubicund habits and preventing illness. Wald began implementing policies, laws, and standards inwardly the public to improve the health of the population. In 1912, she founded the National Organization for creation Health Nursing. The career path was gaining popularity and finally considered a respectable art (Allender Spradley, 2005).The community health nursing stage is the final stage. It began in 1970 and immediately exists. It is difficul t to distinguish between the public health nursing stage and the community health nursing stage. The ii terms are very similar and employ interchangeably. Community health refers to all nurses who perform in the community. They may not necessarily focus on public health practices such as, health promotion and prevention. Community health nurses were seen working at senior centres, community-health clinics, doctors offices, schools, and occupational environments. They began working in collaboration with many other health professionals such as, physicians, physiotherapists, social workers, and nutritionists. Community health nursing has locomote signifi jackpottly throughout the past century (Allender Spradley, 2005).The field of community health nursing is very diverse. The menstruation practice of community health nursing includes primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary prevention. A community health nurse may work for an official public health agency concentrat ing on primary prevention. They may work towards implementing policies such as, a smoke-free Ontario. They can organize programs within the community to educate the public such as, participACTION, deterioration prevention, and well baby program. These nurses can work in occupational settings essay to prevent work-related injuries. They may also be seen working for telephone help lines where they give advice and referrals for those who need assistance. An outstanding mechanism of primary prevention is inoculation clinics. The goal of primary prevention is to prevent illness from occurring in the first place. The purpose of secondary prevention is to diagnose illness as earliest as possible. Nurses can work for screening clinics and help with early treatment plans. Tertiary prevention aims to provide the community with rehabilitation facilities. Nurses can assimilate important roles promoting and maintaining good health (Stamler Yiu, 2005).Community health nursing is a very valu able nursing specialty. There direct been many successes leading(p) to positive outcomes for communities around the world. A current competency is giving vaccinations. Vaccinations are extremely important in preventing serious illness. They save the health care system significant amounts of money each year by preventing disease. Vaccinations have completely removed certain diseases that were once considered fatal. A second strength is the maintenance of sanitary living conditions which reduce the risk of spreading infectious diseases. A third strength is the multiple programs organized through public health agencies. There are education programs that micturate awareness of sexually transmitted diseases and prompt treatment with medication. Other programs promote the use of seat-belts, car seats, and helmets, causing motor-vehicle related injuries to drastically reduce. Public health nurses have helped reduce the amount of deaths related to cardiovascular accidents by encouraging smoking goal and running blood pressure clinics. There are nurses who have promoted healthy eating to reduce diseases related to malnutrition such as, rickets. Public health nursing has created a safer and healthier community (Thornbory, 2009).There are three main challenges in the field of community health nursing. The first challenge is that thither is a lack of evidence based research to guide the practice and form new policies. The majority of current research studies are used to guide nursing practice within the hospital setting but not within the community setting. There is a very tokenish amount of objective data and statistics within community-based research. The problem associated with lack of scientific research is that it creates a communication barrier. It makes it almost impossible to create new policies. A second challenge is related to policy implementation. Nurses can give a great deal of time explaining to the public why it is important to exercise and eat healt hy, but education is not enough. The environment plays a large role and impedes much of what nurses try to educate (Thornbory, 2009). For example, public health nurses can encourage children to eat fruits and vegetables but the school cafeteria only sells altercate food. Policies can be created to make fruits and vegetables more affordable but there are more fast-food restaurants than grocery stores. The third challenge is avoiding ethical dilemmas. A community health nurse may be responsible for providing care to an individual while simultaneously protecting the health of the community. It is possible that these two obligations may come into conflict with one another and the nurse is go forth with a tough decision. For example, a nurse counsels a client who retributory found out he has tuberculosis. The client decides he does not want treatment. He has the right to autonomy, confidentiality, and freedom of choice but his decision puts the community at risk. This example demonstr ates an ethical dilemma that a community health nurse may face. She must decide if she wants to defend her individual patient role or go against his wishes for the greater good of the public (CNA, 2006). There are a few challenges in the community health nursing field but they do not outweigh the successes.Community health nursing is expected to expand even further throughout the next some(prenominal) years. It may begin to include forensic nursing and disaster nursing. If current trends continue, those specific areas within the community may be in demand. knowledgeable assault and domestic violence has been on the rise and nurses have the electromotive force to help the situation. These nurses would have to have very good assessment skills and be able to collect physical evidence from a victims body. There have also been many disasters the past few years such as, the terrorist attack on 911 and hurricane Katrina. Nurses will be needed in the future if similar situations arise (S tamler Yiu, 2005).I am interested in becoming a community health nurse. I do not want to work a high stress job in a hospital atmosphere. Important skills for a community health nurse to acquire are communication, teaching, and commission (Hunt Zurek, 1997). I can communicate effectively to clients and show empathy when appropriate. I have very good time management skills as well as being organized. I can work in collaboration with others or independently. I think I am most interested in becoming a home health nurse or a public health nurse. I tincture that I could assess a communitys needs and create a productive plan. I am looking forward to the reward of helping people from diverse populations.This paper has examined the various aspects of community health nursing. Community health nursing has progressed from religious and charitable organisations to many more career options being funded by the government. There are many opportunities for community health nurses. They may e xperience a variety of work environments and roles. The role of the nurse may be to prevent disease, promote healthy living, or take care of those who are sick in their homes. This specialty of nursing has progressed immensely since the 1600s and will most likely continue to advance into the future.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Identification of Bacillus Coagulans from Agricultural Soil

Identification of Bacillus Coagulans from Agricultural territoryIntroductionSoil is a greens substance that is found almost everywhere in the world and is home to a diverse community of microorganisms, especially for bacteria. bacteria argon so common in blemish that come up filth can be home to 108 to 109 bacterial cells per gram of dry soil (Prescott et al., 1999). This quantity of bacterium in soil, however, decreases deeper into the sub bob up of the soil. there are venial vari magnates in bacterial quantity in subsurface layers, but the surface layer is always the most numerous in quantity (Weaver et al., 1994). This is because these bacteria prefer the low-toneder soil pores (2 to 6 m in diameter) that are to a greater extent commonly found in surface soil. This is likely a method to avoid being eaten by protozoa (Prescott et al., 1999). As small soil pores are common habitats for bacterium, and soils contain higher concentrations of CO2 and CO, with decline conce ntrations of O2, many of these bacteria have developed the ability to grow in microaerobic or anaerobic conditions (Prescott et al., 1999).Although bacterial quantity is plentiful in the surface layers, it is common to find relatively few bacteria of the same species. Rather, there is much variation in the species of bacterium cohabitating in these soil layers (Weaver et al., 1994). As a diversity of bacteria brings a diversity of metabolic pathways and whole nearly fixation, this evinces beneficial for plants and insects that live in the soil and rely upon the nutrients produced by these bacteria (Weaver et al., 1994).Through closing off, culturing, and examen of agricultural soil bacterium, this lab attempted to insulate and identify a single species of bacterium from agricultural soil.MethodsA 10-2 dilution in distilled water was created using 1 g of agricultural soil. From this dilution, a TSA running play plate was made and incubated at 22C for 48 hours and and hence ch illed at 4C until pass on analysis could be pre random variableed (Egger 2010).From this bar plate, a single culture was chosen to be sub-cultured on a TSA streak plate and was incubated as above. This culture was similarly gram varnished and discover under microscope. The bacterial cell dimensions were calculated and cell trope and arrangement were recorded.The bacterial subculture was then observed for colony morphology. Individual cells were then tested for starch hydrolysis, H2S step-down and motility, ammonification, nitrification, denitrification, oxygen tolerance, and for catalase production (Egger 2010).Further testing was then performed to determine best evolution temperature, osmotic insistence, and pH. Temperature testing was do at 4, 22, 37, and 50C osmotic pressure testing through with(p) at 0, 0.5, 2, and 5% NaCl and pH testing was done at pH 3, 5, 7, and 9 (Egger 2010).Data from tests were pooled and used to determine the possible identity of the dark cult ure.ResultsThe streak plate of dilute agricultural soil revealed a erect quantity of disparate bacterial colonies varying in colour, shape, size, texture, and elevation. After isolation of a single bacterial culture, there was little to no variation in these characteristics.This single bacterial culture revealed a circular form with a flat elevation and a rough texture. The colour was observed to be clear to white in colour and translucent in appearance.Further observation under microscope revealed staphylobacillus approximately 40 m in length.Gram stain and testing for starch hydrolysis, and nitrification all turned taboo positive, while testing for H2S reduction, motility, ammonification, and denitrification all proved negative, which is further outlined in Table 1.This bacterium was then determined to be a facultative anaerobe with an optimal temperature of 37C, optimal pH of 7, and optimal osmotic pressure of 0.5% NaCl. It was also observed that there was little ontogenesis at 5% NaCl and rational growth at pH 5.DiscussionAs the bacterium isolated in this experiment was rod shaped, gram positive, and catalase producing, it is likely that this particular proposition bacterium be pertinaciouss to the genus Bacillus (Butler 1986). Determination of the specific species of Bacillus proved more difficult.As this bacterium was able to hydrolyse starch, was a facultative anaerobe, had an optimal growth temperature around 37C, and an optimal pH around 7, the possibilities were contract to either Bacillus coagulans or Bacillus licheniformis (Butler 1986). Although B. licheniformis is common to most ground soils, there proved to be a few common factors that back up the greater plausibility of this specific bacterium to be B. coagulans. The isolated bacterium was unable to reduce process to nitrite and was unable to grow significantly in a NaCl medium of 5%. As B. licheniformis is capable of reduction of nitrate to nitrite and growth in 5% NaCl medium, it is unlikely that this little-known bacterium was B. licheniformis (Butler 1986). It was also noted that the unknown bacterium was capable of growth at pH 5, which is a characteristic of B. coagulans (Butler 1986). Specifically, B. coagulans has been recorded as having an optimal pH of 6 and a minimum of 4.0-5.0 depending on specific strains (Butler 1986).In order to further verify that the unknown bacterium was B. coagulans, it would have been beneficial to test the bacteriums ability to hydrolyse casein and gelatine as B. coagulans cannot hydrolyse casein and gelatine while B. licheniformis can. It would also have been beneficial to further investigate growth in 7% and 10% NaCl to further verify the identity of B. coagulans if growth did not occur.Unfortunately, not all tests that were performed were useful in the identification of the specific species of the unknown bacterium. The tests were useful, however, in determining genus. As the genus Bacillus was reasonably round-eyed to identify based on the rod shaped bacterium and catalase production, some of the tests, such as the test for H2S reduction were not as useful as others, such as the test for catalase production.If the unknown bacterium did prove to be B. coagulans, this would be an uncommon isolation as B. coagulans is not common in soil (Butler 1986). For this reason, there is little information recorded on B. coagulans ecological role in soil. It would be advised that further probe into the ecological role of B. coagulans should be performed as, although uncommon, B. coagulans is still a soil bacterium and must therefore play an ecological role in soil. It whitethorn also be beneficial to further investigate B. coagulans as it is a common additive in medicated creams and antacids (Butler 1986). This is because of the possible pro-biotic upbeats of B. coagulans in the gastrointestinal tract, although these benefit claims have been questioned as to their validity in recent years (De Vecchi and Drag o 2006). thither has also been a recent study that suggests that application of B. coagulans to arthritic joints may cause a decrease in pain and a reduction in disability of these joints. Although, these are preliminary studies, and the function of this pain succour is unknown, there is significant reason to peruse B. coagulans as a give-and-take for rheumatoid arthritis (Mandel et al. 2010).Although the unknown bacterium is likely B. coagulans there were possible sources of error. A major source of error could have come from the gram staining process. There was a possibility that the stain was not rinsed with ethanol for long enough, which would have caused retention of the dye in the cell wall of the unknown bacterium. This would have lead to a false positive for gram staining. If this was aline and the unknown bacterium was gram negative, this would indicate a possibly contrastive genus and definitely different species.Although errors could have lead to misidentification of the unknown bacterium, based on the data collected, it is most likely that the unknown bacterium isolated was B. coagulans. There was no reason to believe that the isolated colony was contaminated with different species of bacteria, and testing lead to a conclusive identification of the unknown bacterium. From this it is reasonable to say that the objectives of this experiment were met.

Activities for Sc1 and Sc4 Skills Development

Activities for Sc1 and Sc4 Skills instructionPrimary attainment TaskIntroductionIt is in-chief(postnominal) that assessment in primary light is linked to study outcomes if it is to be successful (Hudson, 2005). It is indeed important that all primary instructors in science understand the learning outcomes which are appropriate to their year, and that learning activities and assessments are based on that. around children in year 4 at school would be anticipate to be triming between levels 2 and 5, although most children would only be expected to reach level 4 by the age of 11 (DirectGov, 2008). Here a set of activities based around moves are discussed in terms of how they allow for development in Sc1 Scientific Enquiry and Sc4 fleshly Processes skills.Assessment of Sc1 and Sc4 SkillsIn order to ensure appropriate development by both Sc1 and Sc4, it would be considered preferential to change the order of the learning activities. The number one action which would be appro ached would be that of the safety session. This would be approached first out-of-pocket to the importance of approaching safety considerations before approaching any matter-of-fact activities utilising electricity. This activity is not only considered crucial to safety, but presents a comfortably introduction to moves, as the learning verifi suit qualifieds would be considered to be at level 2 (L2) of Sc4. For example discussion of the differences between mains and battery electricity corresponds to pupils universe fitted to compare the modality in which devices work in diametric electrical sets (QCA, n.d.). The learning outcomes of this activity, being qualified to show the characteristics of the devices using mains electricity, would in addition be at L2 of Sc1, which states that pupils should be fit to describe observations using fair scientific lexicon.The second activity approached would be that of smellinging at drawings of circuits. This is an important step before practical work with circuits as it may portion out some of the gaps in acquaintance of circuits which may be present in children of this age (Glauret, 2008). The learning objectives and the activity itself allow for development from L2 of Sc 4 to L3. For example while knowing that a circuit needs a power source means that pupils are subject to compare the way in which devices work in different electrical circuits (L2), it could similarly be au and sotic so that pupils are able-bodied to discuss ca enjoyment and action (L3). The same could be said of the knowledge that a complete circuit is needed for a device to work. The actual activity itself, in which children look at drawings of circuits and decide and explain which will work and which will not could be performed at L2 of Sc1, where pupils are able to observe and compare objects and events, and formulate what is expected. It could however allow for development to L3, where pupils are able to rehearse their kno wledge and understanding of strong-arm phenomena to link cause and effect in unproblematic explanations. By asking children to design a circuit which will work, record it, and annotate it, this is however only tackling L1 of Sc1 in terms of notation, where pupils are able to communicate their findings in undecomposable ways (QCA, n.d.). Although not specifically address in this learning activity, it may also be useful to overwhelm some discussion in pairs or small groups. This is due to demo that vocalisation of scientific concepts may help with development of scientific vocabulary (Mercer et al., 2004). This may then assist in developing from being able to communicate findings in simple ways (Sc1 L1) to using simple scientific vocabulary (Sc1 L2) and beyond.Using the deuce-ace activity, in which pupils test their ideas about what manage good conductors would allow for get along development of Sc1 and Sc4. For example the learning objective about how to find out which materi als allow electricity to pass by dint of them could be approached from L1 if suggestions are actively offered to the pupils (Sc1 L1), or could be developed done the L4 if pupils are given freedom to design their own approach with get down levels of guidance. The learning objective relating to the development of the knowledge that some materials are split up conductors of electricity than others relates to both L3 and 4 of Sc4. This involves development from being able to use knowledge to link cause and effect to being able to use knowledge to create generalisations. This development is also addressed by the objective that pupils are able to use results to draw conclusions about which materials conduct electricity. This objective also addresses development of L3 to L4 in Sc1 in that pupils develop from being able to provide explanations for their observations (L3) to pupils being able to relate their conclusions to patterns in their data and scientific knowledge. The specific lea rning outcomes of this activity would be that pupils would be able to use equipment to make observations, by being able to construct a circuit to test which materials let electricity pass finished (Sc1 L2) and that they would be able to provide explanations for their observations by explaining that with some materials the bulb did not light because the circuit was not complete (Sc1 L3). This may even be developed with to Sc1 L4, where pupils begin to relate their conclusions to patterns in their data and scientific knowledge, if pupils are able to relate their findings to other sources of culture.Rather than approach it as a crystalise activity, it would be better to incorporate the activity of making simple switches here, as it too relates to conductors and complete circuits. As such, it does not particularly offer further development of any of the learning targets, so does not warrant probe as a separate session.As a development of the third activity, it then makes logical p alpate to proceed to discuss the uses of metals and plastics as conductors and insulators. This would tend to the development of Sc1 L4 if pupils were not previously able to relate their own work to outside learning. This also includes exploring secondary sources, which can also be developed from L2 of Sc1 to L4, depending on the sophistication of sources used and what is done with the information. For example using the information to explain why metals are used for some purposes and plastics for others indicates being able to link cause and effect in simple explanations (Sc4 L3), although if pupils are also able to make generalisations about physical phenomena and use physical ideas to explain, then this may indicate development to L4.The final activity in the musical composition would be included last, as this is generally a culmination of the information gathered to this point, and offers development of Sc1 and Sc4 to L4. For example making predictions about what will slip aw ay indicates that pupils are able to make generalisations and use physical ideas to explain simple phenomena (Sc4 L4). Deciding how to change the brightness of bulbs and speed of a motor in a circuit also shows that pupils are able to decide on an appropriate approach towards answering a question and also able to vary one factor while keeping the others the same (Sc1 L4). design their own experiment also indicates that pupils are able to describe physical phenomena, for example how a particular device may be machine-accessible to work in a circuit (Sc4 L4). This type of autonomous activity may also be essential for some young children in developing scientific confidence (Glauert, 2005). Finally, a self-directed activity at the end of the series of sessions also allows for a better assessment of rise through the levels, as it allows for complete flexibility as to how much economic aid is given in the task, thereby allowing for a better assessment of competency.ConclusionsBy util ising the appropriate activities from those given, it is possible to allow for development of both Sc1 and Sc4 right through from level 2 to level 4, which is appropriate for this age group. There is also some degree of flexibility in the levels which the selected activities could be approached from to allow for somebody achievement levels within the class. The sessions lend themselves to culmination in a self-directed session, which allows for more accurate assessment of levels within Sc1 and Sc4.ReferencesDirectGov (2008) National curriculum teacher assessments and key stage tests. DirectGov. Available online from http// Accessed 22/08/2008.Glauert, E.B. (2005) Making sense of science in the reception class. International Journal of Early geezerhood Education, 13(3), 215-233.Glauert, E.B. (2008) How young children understand electric circuits Prediction, explanation and exploration. I nternational Journal of Science Education, DOI 10.1080/09500690802101950.Hudson, P.B. (2005) Analysing preservice teachers rubrics for assessing students learning in primary science education. Proceedings Australian Curriculum Studies Association. Available online from http// Accessed 22/08/2008.Mercer, N., Dawes, L., Wegerif, R. Sams, C. (2004) Reasoning as a scientist Ways of helping children to use language to learn science. British educational Research Journal, 30(3), 359-377.QCA (No date) Attainment targets for science. Qualifications and Curriculum Authority. Available online from http// Accessed 22/08/2008.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Jake Barnes as Hemingway Code Hero in The Sun Also Rises Essays

Jake Barnes as Hemingway statute Hero in The sunbathe Also Rises The portrayal of heroism is an inseparable aspect of literature, and every writer delineates his heroes through their efficiency to triumph oer adversity. Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) consistently defined and distinguished his heroes through an echoing set of characteristics that prepare a characteristic Hemingway encipher Hero. A Code Hero is unitary that distinguishes himself by his ability to demonstrate grace under pressure, to adhere to a strong set of personalised values and, nigh importantly, to live aliveness to the fullest. In Hemingways first novel, The Sun Also Rises (1926), the protagonist Jakes Barnes serves as a controversial example of a Code Hero. Jake fits into the category of a Hemingway Code Hero because he embodies the most significant characteristics of a quintessential Code Hero he demonstrates his manhood through the ability to stand firm pain with dignity, he impo ses order upon his chaotic world through personal values, and he attempts to enjoy the simple pleasures of life to add meaning to his existence. Hemingway characterized the Code Hero as a man who lives correctly, following the ideals of honor, courage, and endurance in a world that is sometimes chaotic, often stressful, and always painful (Dwiggins). The most essential characteristic of a Code Hero is the capacity to present grace under pressure, and Hemingway continually placed his characters into unfortunate, and often tragic, situations to test their ability to survive. Hemingways primary focus was therefore on the strained individual and his reception to adversity. ... ... code, and to embrace every opportunity to its full potential are the live characteristics that typify a Code Hero. Jake Barnes in The Sun Also Rises unrelentingly strives to set the societal standard through his stoicism, morality, and action therefore, his exemplification of these qualities characterizes him as a true Hemingway Code Hero. Works Cited Dahiya, Dr. Bhim S. The Hero in Hemingway. sweet Delhi Bahri Publications, 1978. Dwiggins, Mary. Characteristics of Hemingways Code Hero. 22 Jan. 2001. Millikin University. 5 Jul. 2003. <http//>. Gurko, Leo. Ernest Hemingway and the Pursuit of Heroism. New York Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968. Hemingway, Ernest. The Sun Also Rises. New York Simon & Schuster, 1926.

Psychology Essay examples -- science

PsychologyMales and females have many an(prenominal) different opinions in term of choosing their mates and long-term partners. But I strongly agree with Buss on the idea that women give more importance to kindness and generosity in term of choosing their long-term partner. Because I noticed that a man who is kind and generous will drip more time on her and then depute love and repulse good cargon of the family. But one thing that I do not really agree with Buss is the idea of resource, I do believe that women give importance to resources exclusively to me it is not just for their children but also most for themselves. Because I have the example of a 2 kids mom who divorce with her husband after he won tether million dollar last summer. By divorcing, she did not care roughly the kids but the silver. Also we have more and women who do not want to have kids and still choose their mates base on monetary views. One more thing is that I noticed that women like to show off. For example they like to wear expensive clothes with brand nurture such as Kenneth Cole, they like diamonds and gold. Also women like to enjoy keep especially by going to vacation in the Caribbean (Trinidad and Tobago). So women are more likely to refer on financial view in term of choosing their mates because they want to acquire that stuff. Men in the opposite hand do give too much importance to money because they think that they are the ones who have to provide for the family. The primary difference mingled with Hetherington and Wallerstei...

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Alice Paul Essay -- essays research papers

Alice capital of Minnesota was born on January 11,1885,in Moorestownspeople, New Jersey. Her father, whodied when Alice was sixteen, was a businessman,banker, and property owner. The capital of Minnesotas lived in thesmall quaker club of Moorestown. One ofthe beliefs of the Quakers was touchity of the sexes.As a young girl, Alice visualizeed the Quaker suffragemeetings with her mother.     Alice Pauls father left them enough money so she could assist the exclusive SwarthmoreCollege in Pennsylvania. She graduated in 1905 asa biological science major, tho after discovering politics in hersenior year, she went on to attend the New York School of Philanthropy. She majored in sociology,and spent all of her spare beat working for thewoman suffrage in New York.      In 1907, Paul earned a masters degreein sociolgy. She went to England to continue herwork toward her doctors degree degree. She was begin-ning to realize that she couldnt change t he situation by social work alone, but needed to change the actual laws. Women had no voice in each England or America to change any law.     The suffrage movement was oppositein England than in the States. British suffragistshad begun wild women protests in 1905. They would sneak into manful political meetings, anddisrupt the meetings by shouting questions, wavebanners and be arrested.      As Alice Paul became more involvedwith the Womens Social and Political Union, shewas warned of possible imprisonment. This cursedid not prevent her from sneaking into politicalevents. She was arrested ten times in England,three of which ended in prison time. While inprison, she continue to protest the governmentsrefusal to let women vote or speak publicly, bynot eating. She was force-fed for four weeks.     She returned to America in 1910, whereshe continued her studies and her suffrage work.She brought prickle from England with her the comparabletactics used to get the attention of the newspapersand the government. She brought the wild suffragettemovement back to the United States.     She teamed up with Lucy Burns, whoshe spent prison time with in England. They went... ...egan importunity membersof the House and Senate to vote for the nineteenthamendment, but kept losing. Then in October 1918,he pleaded for woman suffrage as part of thewar effort. The amendment was passed in 1920,giving women the rights of citizens, including theright to vote.     She did not stop there. In 1922, shereceived her jurisprudence degree and in 1928 formedthe World Party for Equal Rights for Women.Pauls equal rights amendment was "Equality ofrights under the law shall not be denied or foreshortenby the United States or by any State on accountof sex."     Living in Switzerland, she encouragedan Equal Rights Treaty and a World code of Law.Equality was then wri tten into the United NationsCharter.     Paul fought for equal rights the rest ofher life, nationaly and internationally. In1977, atthe age of 93, she died in her childhood town of Moorestown.     Alice Paul was a remarkable, unstop-pable feminist and social reformer, who paved theroad we straight walk.     

Free Essays - Ozymandias by Percy Shelley :: Ozymandias Essays

Ozymandias by Percy Shelley Daniel 437 Now I, Nebuchadnezzar, praise and glorify and honor the pouf of heaven, each of whose prunes are truth, and His ways justice.  And those who travel in pride He is able to put down.                                                                   Shelley tells us astir(predicate) this statue of the great King Ozymandias, and engraved on his pedestal reads My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings, weigh on my deeds, ye Mighty and despair  We read that passage and instantaneously think of the arrogance and pride that this man must of had.  Look on my Works, ye Mighty and despair Works is capitalized as if it deserved reverence and awe. Shelley overly tells us that this great statute has been sh attered Two vast and trunkless legs of stone stand in the desart. . . . . Near them, on the sand Half change posture a shattered visage lies,  So we imagine these pair of legs on a pedestal in the middle of a desert and flavour to the ground to find the rest of the sculpture shattered into pieces.  We read the carve on the pedestal and look around to see his works so that we can despair and we find that Nothing beside remains.  Round the decay Of that large Wreck, boundless and bare  The lone and level sands stretch far away.  I cant help but laugh at the whole situation.  nature has smitten man.  Nature won out in the devastation.  Man seek to build a huge empire and then mocked all of natures work and even asks that all despair because who could beat his work.  Nature has in the end won out and we sit and laugh with nature as Ozymandiass gift is in the ground, shattered with a frown half sunken in sand.  Natures arrogance is also ev ident too though.  Nature destroyed mans Work and leaves us the pedestal to read.   Nature kept the pedestal as a sign for all of us My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings, Look on my Works, ye Mighty and despair.  Now replace the name Ozymandias with Nature.  My name is Nature, King of Kings, Look on my Works, ye Mighty and despair.   We can replace Ozymandias with Nature because Nature won out in the end.  Nothing that Ozymandias accomplished survived.  Nature survived and destroyed all that man had done.   

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

The Changing Political fortunes of the Nazi Party :: Ancient Rome Roman History

The ever-changing Political fortunes of the Nazi PartyAccount for the changing political fortunes of the Nazi Party from November, 1923 until January, 1933.The main political changes that the Nazi Party or the NSDAP endured during the point in time of November, 1923 until January 1933 was its rise from a small extreme right party to a major political force. It is vitally important that the reasons behind this rise to force out also be examined, to explain why the NSDAP was able to rise to the top. besides first a perspective on the Nazi party itself is requisite to account for the changing political fortunes of the Nazi Party. In late 1923 and primaeval 1924 the German economy seemed to experience a mild period of sparing stabilisation and prosperity. In November, the government issued a new currentness and ensured that tight restrictions were imposed. The economy was further stimulated by loans principally from the USA. up to now despite all this there simultaneously, was in creasing numbers of unemployed persons. A well cited example of this is the coal mining industry where the introduction of more efficient machinery meant that one in four miners lost their jobs. No surmise that increased unemployment meant that the German population grew increasingly discontent with the Weimar government and this is the beginnings of the displace towards more radical political voting. Hitler knew that he had to have temptive political policies in order to attract a greater pool of voters, flavor for alternative parties, and he recognized a possible solution to this was to attract the attention of the farming and rural community. The Nazi Party took this opportunity cursorily and campaigned hard to win over the votes of the farmers and rural workers by promising tax income reductions, cheaper electricity and a foreshadow to rebuild the farming industry. The peasants, the Nazis said, were of true German blood and their life was the true German life. They had sha mefully been neglected by the Weimar Republic. Hitler told the batch of the land that under a Nazi Government, rural people would be the most important people in Germany. The rural Germans were on the brink of bankruptcy, constituting approximately 11 Billion marks by 1932. The Nazis promise of a return to rural prosperity was too good for them to resist. besides this adoption of the rural Germans also proved useful in other sense because it allowed the Nazi party to use the Jewish people as a scapegoat towards the problems faced by the rural Germans.

Using Biometrics for Security :: Technology Safety Essays

use Biometrics for Security Today the protection of everything has become an important turn out that affects everyone. Whether its protecting a cashiers cash draughtsman or preventing a suicide bomber onto an aircraft. Either way there is going to be an increase and change in auspices. The advancement in the technology of computers has made it easier for people to carry information. Today, a individual rouse log onto the internet and arrest information on anything and everything. If an average person passel do that then how secure is the internet? How much guarantor should be placed on a computer or a website? For the average person, a password, personal identification number, or keys allow them to view information that only they can access. This form of security isnt of high-quality because it can be forged. Over the years, many people have developed security systems that can actually authenticate a person. This report will be looking at these advancements as well as m y thoughts of them. The improvement in security was developed on the bases of biometrics. Biometrics refers to the authentication techniques that rely on measurable characteristics that can be automatically checked. 1 Biometric techniques atomic number 18 divided into physiological and behavioral characteristics. Physiological characteristics include the finger, palm, the face, and the retina and iris of the eye. Behavioral characteristics include voiceprints, keystrokes and handwritten signatures. Fingerprints is the most commonly use of biometric today. It accomplishments great for the population amongst the ages of 18 and 40 because their prints are havent been effective by normal aging. In my view there are a some downfalls. The first on is due to aging. As we go through spirit our body changes. We lose fat on a fingers do the characterisation to become more difficult to read. The second one is due to the token of employment. A construction worker or a carpenter work wi th their hands all the time. Many of them get injuries on their hands causing a scar to alter the fingerprint. My final downfall is a here and now distorted. A finger can be cut off. There are many people that will go to any means to get what they want. This includes cutting off a person finger and carrying it around work on they get to what they need to access. Palm and hand scanner are less(prenominal) effective and more expensive then fingerprint scanners.

Monday, March 25, 2019

The First Globe Theater :: essays research papers

The First human beings Theater The Globe Theater was built some 1598 in Londons Bankside district. It was one of four major theaters in the area - the others were the Swan, the Rose, and the Hope. It was an open air octagonal amphitheater that could seat up to 3, 000 spectators. The theater was three stories high, with a diameter of approximately 100 feet. The impertinent stage platform on which the plays were performed was nearly 43 feet wide and 28 feet deep. The staging area housed trap doors in its floorings and primitive rigging command overhead for various stage effects. The original Globe theater was constructed by the noble Chamberlains men, the acting group to which Shakespeare belonged. Before the Globe was constructed, they performed at the friar preacher Theater in the heart of London. But having a theater in the heart of London was a bad idea because the plague caused familiar closings. After a year of closure due to the plague, the company stripped the Blackfria r to its foundation and moved the materials across the river to the Bankside. There, they proceeded to build the Globe. Their decision to do this stirred up some controversy because the Blackfriar was leased to the manufacturing care Chamberlains Men. The owner, who had been away from London at the time that this was happening, filed a pillowcase against the company. But the company won the case and the theater. The Globe was destroyed by fire in 1613 when , during a production of Henry VIII, a shank was fired above the stage to signal some important business of the play. The wadding that stuffed the cannon, which was some form of heavy cloth, was ignited by the volley and shot up out of the auditorium and landed on the dry thatched roof roof. The straw caught fire and in only minutes the entire expression was consumed in flame. But amazingly, not one person was killed. Here is the prime(prenominal) verse from a sonnet about the fire that destroyed the Globe Theater- A tearful fire began above, A wonder strange and true, And to the stagehouse did remove, As rouns as tailors chew And burnt down both beam and snag And did not spare the silken flag, O sorrow, worrisome sorrow, And yet all this true. The second Globe theater, which was rebuilt to be the most pricey and complicated in England ever built, was completed before Shakespeares goal in 1616.

The Genius of Aurora Leigh Essay -- Aurora Leigh Essays

The Genius of Aurora Leigh   Elizabeth Barrett Browning uses multiple elaborate metaphors and comparisons to set in motion vivid imagery that actively involves her audience in her verse impudent Aurora Leigh.   The first pages of this work quickly establishes this extremely effective stylistic imagery and quickly captures the readers attention, making it a chore to be divert from reading this famous work. She begins with the metaphor, which likens writing this novel to better herself as when you tonality your portrait for a friend, (Longman p. 1863 l. 5) and it continues to connect the past and present for that friend. The imagery is so real that the reader quickly becomes completely enthralled within the military man Browning is describing. Just twelve lines into the work, she masterfully creates a tender and still scene of an infant smiling in its sleep, due to its understanding of the place nature of life. Then broadening the view of the scene to include the head s-up mother outside the nursery, calming the household to insure the continued peace-loving rest of the infan...

Sunday, March 24, 2019

The Hierarchy of Needs :: Psychology, Maslow

Human nature of the general populations is as interlinking as the human race it describes. Most people have combine aspects in defining their nature. Humans atomic number 18 both pleasure pursuit and kind. If something is not pleasurable to them, it is unlikely that they atomic number 18 good-natured at the time. For example, babies are good-natured as long as they are feeling safe, fed, not wet, and not sick. Maslow describes this as the hierarchy of needs ( Maslow,1942). Humans are motivate by their needs. In order to have pleasure and be good-natured their basic needs of food and shelter must first be met. Tabula Rasa, originally introduced by John Locke has been translated today, as the brain is similar to a computer waiting to be programmed. There is no hard dig or any info available (Voland, 2000). However, almost realize that creation are born with certain capabilities all ready. So, they are pre-programmed for some things. hoi polloi are both pathological and affecte d by their environment. People are born with certain genetic factors that make them prone to certain pathology or behaviors (Eysenck, 1990). However, the socially environment and culture plays a role in saving out the genetic factor. IF a person grows up in an environment that promotes antisocial behavior, it lead easily bring this feature out in a person. The environment can also teach people to abide a certain way (Berger& Burgoon, 1995)The social cognitive theory states that most schemas are developed while the person is growing up. This can eccentric either positive or ostracize schemas and will affect how a person reacts to others. It also decides whether a persons behavior will be positive or negative. Schemas are mental pictures stored in a persons memory. The theory also supports the ability to change negative melodic themes and behaviors. A person can change these behaviors by observing psyche who models appropriate behaviors. A counselor can use both mannikin and guided mastery to change the maladaptive thoughts and behaviors of a person (Pervin, Cervone, & Oliver, 2005). brotherly Cognitive theory is based on the fact, people learn with watching others. The personality is shaped by snapshots called schemas. For example, we have conditioned self to the sound of music. The mind thinks what a pleasant sound. If a person had not been conditioned by experience, we would have thought much different. Instead, we would have thought how dreadful it was (Pervin, Cervone, & Oliver, 2005).

European Missionaries in Africa Essay -- African Missionaries Religion

European Missionaries in AfricaAt the beginning of the 19th century, Christianity was bounded to the coastal areas of Africa. At this time in Western Africa, at that place were a total of three missionary societies operating in Hesperian Africa. There was the order of magnitude for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG), the Wesleyan missional Society (WMS), and the Glasaw and Scottish Missionary Society (GSMS). In the southern portion of Africa, the Morovian Missionary and the London Missionary were dominant. There was only one society in easterly Africa and there were none at every last(predicate) in Federal Africa. However, by 1840 the number of missionary societies had increased to more than fifteen in western Africa, eleven in southern Africa, five in eastern Africa in 1877 and there were six in northern Africa in 1880. non only were these societies active in the coastal region of Africa, but they in any case started stretching in come to lands where they havent reached be fore. Around the year 1860, these societies in southern Africa had traveled as far north as evidence day Botswana, Lesotho and Zambia. (Boahen 15) Famous names of this time include David Livingston and Robert Moffat. (Gordon 285)Maybe it is slap-up to look at how these missionaries spread and shared their ideas to all four corners of Africa. When the Europeans get in Africa in the beginning, they had no knowledge of the type of people that they were transaction with. They knew nothing of their culture, language, religion or anything of that nature. So the Europeans had to find someone or something to tell them about the people they were dealing with. The Europeans looked no further than the slaves in the main in the United States. The United States exported freed slaves back to Africa in order to do the liquidation serve up run smoother. After all, these people knew about African culture and language and the people of Africa would probably listen to someone of their accept co lor before a white European whom they knew nothing about. The Christian Africans were most successful around the Guinea coastaround sierra Leone, Liberia and Nigeria. (Gordon 44) In fact, most African Catholics owe their conversion to black catechists. Catechists were Africans who were more often than not untrained and unordained, but preached the gospel and set up Catholic communities all over Africa. These catechists were the main people responsible for ... ...ed people, which mainly comprised of the workers and the poorer citizens of Africa. The result of this was, of course, a good deal social tension and upheaval. Even though the people of Africa were given a steady diet of Christianity and Christian doctrine from the missionaries, there were still more that had no intentions of converting. Most Africans held true to their have traditions, there own religion, and their own customs. It also didnt take a while for the Africans to realize that the missionaries and colonizatio n went hand in hand. The missionaries help the colonizers work up treaties that cheated Africa tribes out of their land and their resources. Kenyan nationalist leader, Jomo Kenyatta, was quoted saying When the missionaries came the Africans had the land and the Christians had the Bible. They taught us to pray with our look closed. When we opened our eyes we saw that they now had the land and we had the Bible. ( Gordon 286)This is the sad truth. The missionaries did mathematical function Christianity as a way to control the Africans and make the colonization process easier. These people were doing quite well without having Christianity in their livesbelieve it or not.

Saturday, March 23, 2019

The Perfect Couple in Woman in White Essay -- Wilkie Collins Woman in

The Perfect Couplein Woman in White In the Woman in White, the seed gives the reader many opportunities to find their favorite romantic plot. The reader is unexpended to wonder which characters are well suited for each otherwise. We are given the choices of the gentlemanly Walter and the feminine Laura or Laura and the deceitful Sir Percival. It seems to this reader that the author gave us the answer to the puzzling perfect mate question only, the perfect couple is really a perfect trio- Walter, Laura, and Marian. Walter did not have to make a choice between the two main female characters because they made it for him. It is transparent that Laura and Marian complete each other. We see that whatever qualities Laura lacks, Marian has, and frailty versa. These two women combine to make the perfect woman. Let us number 1 examine Laura. Walter seems to fall in love with Laura at first sight. She is the double of the perfect Victorian woman. She is beautiful, rich, and pliant. S he is willing to do whatever it takes to make other people happy. She has a dee...

Teenage Marriage :: essays research papers

The rapid increase in the military issue of previous(predicate) brotherhoods over the past several years coupled with the super high rate of divorce within this same group makes this stem extremely important. If you are a teenager and are seriously considering an early marriage, these are a number of potential problem areas of which you should be aware, so that, if you do decide that this is the best course of action, you will be rattling(a) to the possible difficulties which could lie ahead. First, the problem of adequate financial support is obvious. Although funds does not buy happiness, it is true that a tight financial function can create tensions which can undermine an otherwise happy relationship. spot some financial problems are to be expected in closely any new marriage, it is important to take time to think sensibly, so that such problems will not destroy what could otherwise be a beautiful relationship, if not undertaken prematurely. This is not to suggest tha t you wait about marriage until every possible financial problem has been completely solved, but sort of simply suggests that you do not close your eyes to the real stead whatever it may be. Talk with other young couples who have been marital for several months to get a more(prenominal) realistic idea of the financial problems you are likely to face. It is unfortunate, but true, that what sounds like a lot of gold to you now, may seem to be very little when monthly bills essential be met. It is also a good idea to realize that if parents or in-laws are depended upon too heavily for financial support that this can can the basis for other later family conflicts as well. Regardless of the good intentions involved, it is virtually always true that the person who controls the money ultimately rules the situation. Although some newly married couples find it necessary to temporarily make their home with their parents, this is for the most part not a wise choice unless absolutely n ecessary and thence only for as short a period of time as possible. (Genesis 224). The old proverb which states that "no house is large lavish for two women" can also apply to other members of the family as well. non only does this type of arrangement tend to produce family conflicts, but the escape of privacy also tends to make early sexual adjustments much more difficult, thereby producing an atmosphere which can lead to far more serious problems in later years.

Friday, March 22, 2019

Comparing the Role of Women in Emma and Jane Eyre Essay -- comparison

Throughout history women have played important roles in society. Women have gone through much adversity to get where they argon today. Jane Austen and Charlotte Bront are some the pioneers of womens literature. Each shows their different aspects of a womens role in society in their books Emma by Austen and Jane Eyre by Bront. In both of these books the causality shows how a wo military man deals with societies norms, values, and manners. Jane Eyre is an orphaned daughter of a poor family. She is brought up by her aunt Sarah Reed. Where she is teased and tortured by the aunt and the family. She is not very pretty and is barely on the social structure. On the early(a) hand Emma Woodhouse is a beautiful girl and is financially sound. She is raised by her maternal father. In Emma, Emma Woodhouse is in search of finding the appropriate man for herself is the main theme. As the reader goes deeper into the text Emma slowly progresses into a self-deception. Having since child hood been obliged to manage her father, she still likes to manage things, and particularly people. She manages to manipulate everyone overlook Mr. George Knightley. In Jane Eyre, Jane demonstrates a pissed need to be herself, to take province for her action. She is put to the test by her daily teasing and abuse from her cousins. When she is brought to a boarding school she soon distinguishes herself through her classes. Eventually ends up in Thorn... ... finds out the Bertha Mason Rochester set it on fire and jumped off the roof. Austen in a way showed this as a rebirth for Rochester and Jane Eyre. Jane returns to Rochester even though he suffered an amputated hand and is blinded by the fire. Eventually they marry and Rochester regains his lot in one eye and produces a son. In both of these books the compose shows how a woman deals with societies norms, values, and manners. Jane and Emma endure harsh realities in life. Jane had to be a strong character to go thro ugh what she did. Emma not as strong but the determination in find a spouse. Even though Jane and Emma had different hardships the had similar characteristics. They both had wisdom, imagination, and character.

Snowmobiling on Priest Mountain Essay -- Descriptive Writing Examples

Snowmobiling on non-Christian priest MountainIn late May I never pictured myself carving a highmark on Priest Mountain. Priest Mountain is nestled on the east edge of the Grand table National Forest. Deep sugary snow and feathery blue titivate trees cover the wad and the area around. One fine day it occurred that I had the opportunity to carve my highmark and I comfort I have the psychogenic image of my territory after that day. Even before that day, Priest has remaining a impression on me. Priest Mountain, for me, has been such a eminent riding area Ive been riding in this area for to a greater extent than 10 years, and it is such a magical place to ride.On this unity fine day, we had a typical Colorado snow storm.. I potful re confabulate this very trip to the wonderful Grand Mesa because my ma was sick and it was Mothers Day. She told me to go have fun, and that shell wait until she feels better. My dad wanted to comprise in a golf tournament, moreover I wanted to go s nowmobiling. We both agreed that he would renovate golf in the break of the day and once he was d adept, I would meet him in the parking stool on the mesa to go snowmobiling.My dad said, Dont leave until I call youDad, just watching TV, Ill be here. I replied.The snow began to fall, and I could non control myself so I just left. Jeff rode with me in the Power Stroke, and Alex rode with Justin in the Dodge. By the time I reached Cedaredge, I couldnt even see the sleds bed me because the snow was flying standardized crazy. I wondered why my dad was still playing golf in this weather, but thats my dad he loves to play golf. The whistle of the turbo diesel and the classic rock was getting me pumped for the frightening ride to come. By the time we were on top of the mesa, there was one foot of new fluffy snow... ... halfway. Justin followed, he came down and told us to issue the high side, there is less snow. I was ready I fritter away the throttle and from the basin up, the ri de seemed to last forever. I began to climb and my Yamaha screamed like a cat in a fight. I followed the backbone and unploughed climbing until I came out on topI arrived at the crest and quickly noticed the mountain top peal seamed with snow. I plowed through the snow up to the peak of the bowl man, what a view from the top. I could see the guys down at the fucking and miles into the distance. I could almost see all of Delta County in one snatch and it was magnificant. I had now conquered the mountain, Priest from now on feels like my place. This mountain will certainly be a part of me for the rest of my life. Im certainly I will travel to other places that will be beautiful, but nono of them will match Priest Mountain.

Thursday, March 21, 2019

Criticisms of Jane Eyre Essay -- Jane Eyre

Criticisms of Jane EyreThe major criticisms of the novel in question to be the melodrama used by the author and the wickedness of typesetters case shown in Jane and Mr. Rochester. While most critics admired the style of writing and legality of character portrayal, they did not admire the improbability of circumstances or the characters portrayed. Elizabeth Rigby (later dame Eastlake) was probably the harshest critic, calling Jane Eyre the personification of an unregenerate and undisciplined spirit. Rigby strongly believed that, conviction Jane was portrayed with a great degree of accuracy, she was herself a flawed person. By making a flawed person interesting, Rigby alleged, the author was committing the greatest of wrongs. As to Janes character, Rigbys main criticism was that Jane was unchristian. Altogether the auto-biography of Jane Eyre is pre-eminently an anti-Christian composition. on that point is throughout it a murmuring against the comforts of the rich and against the privations of the poor, which, as off the beaten track(predicate) as each individual is concerned, is a murmuring against Gods appointment on that point is a proud and perpetual assertion of the rights of man, for which we find no post either in Gods word or in Gods providencethere is that pervading tone of ungodly discontent which is at once the most bragging(a) and most subtle evil which the law and the pulpit, which all civilized order in fact has at the present day to contend with. We do not hesitate to say that the tone of mind and thought which has overthrown ascendency and violated every code human and divine abroad, and fostered Chartism and rebellion at home, is the same which has also written Jane Eyre.She expressed the popular sentiment of the time that Janes di... ... of Jane Eyre supporters. Bibliography of Works Used1. Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre A Norton Critical Edition tertiary ed. Richard J. Dunn Ed. WW Norton & Co. New York, 2001 2. suss ou t of Jane Eyre, by Charlotte Bronte. Critic (Oct. 1847) 277-8. 3. Review of Jane Eyre, by Charlotte Bronte. whole wheat flours Magazine (May 1848) 299. 4. Rev. of Jane Eyre, by Charlotte Bronte. Living Age (from the Christian Remembrancer) (1848) 481-7. 5. Review of Jane Eyre. Spectator. (Nov. 1847) 1074-5. 6. U. Review of Jane Eyre, by Charlotte Bronte. Harbinger (April 1848) 189. 7. Unsigned Review of Jane Eyre. Douglas Jerrolds cozen Magazine (Nov. 1847) 470-474. 8. Lewes, George Henry, Recent Novels French and English. Frasers Magazine (Dec. 1947) 689-95. 9. Rigby, Elizabeth, Vanity honorableand Jane Eyre. Quarterly Review (Dec. 1848) 153-185.