Thursday, February 21, 2019
Adult Learning and Learning Styles Essay
When one thinks near cultivation thoughts ar naturally turned toward adolescents. In todays indian lodge the media is quick to expose flaws in the cultivational frame. One r arely thinks about the educational needs of big(p)s, but for mevery boastfuls there is a cock-a-hoop need for continuing their education. One might venture to ask the enquire what is self-aggrandizing collaring? According to Malcolm Knowles with child(p) instruction is a suffice of self-governing inquiry (Urological Nursing, 2006). Although there are legion(predicate) adults that are set to continue their education, the idea can be everyplacewhelming for most.It is best for the adult settleer to prepare for the journey by crafty the process of adult in micturateation, divulgeing the types of acquirement styles, and drawing ones personal learning style. Assessing the level of the in a higher place traits and the readiness to learn will equip the adult learner with an inventory of tools. skill is defined as, a relatively permanent change in an organisms behavior (Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner 2004). There are a multiple theories as to how pile learn. The more(prenominal) popular theory is the Learning Theory.The learning theory encompasses quint orientations to learning Behaviorist, Humanist, Cognitivist, Social Cognitive, and Constructivist (Merriam et al. , 2007). This paper will focus on the behaviorist aspect of learning, the permanent change in behavior. Understanding how and why adults learn will increase the chances of article of belief success. The reason most adults enter any learning experience is to create change. This could encompass a change in (a. ) their skills, (b. ) behavior, (c. ) experience level, or (d. ) even their attitudes about things ( liberal education Center, 2005).The degree of motif is what separate adult learners from school age children, previous experience, learnment in the learning process, and applied learning. Adults learn best when convinced of the need for knowing the information (Urologic Nursing, 2006). For example, an employee who is offered a training opportunity that will instanter assume-to doe with ones job will be more in all likelihood to take advantage of the opportunity, as compared to an employee whose training opportunity is not directly related to the employees job description.Adults have a great depth, breath, and play in the quality of previous life experiences than younger people (OBrien, 2004). precedent experiences can lead the adult learner to connect current learning to more or lessthing lettered in the past. For example, if an adult learner is taking an advance march in Accounting. One might be able to recall a mathematical strategy used previously in a primary course that can apply to the current accounting class. Utilizing experience in this fashion can lead to making the learning experience more meaningful.In a classic study, Rogers (1969) illustrated that when an adult learner has control over the nature, timing, and direction of the learning process, the entire experience is facilitated. Adults tend to be self-directed and decide what they want to learn. For instance, in todays economy many adults have decided to return to school in order to wrick more marketable in the current economic slowdown. The website for the Higher Education Statistics Agency ( HESA) states that 24% of undergraduate students are now classified as mature students (i. e.21 years of age), many of whom have arrived in university after end a foundation-level access course at a further education college.Choosing to return to school allows learners to have more control over the educational process. It allows the adult learner to choose which schedule to enroll, and the level of commitment towards the program the learner is willing to give. It is crucial to remember that in order to engage the adult learner and facilitate the transfer of companionship, patienc e and time on the part of the teacher and learner are needed (Urologic Nursing, 2006).As skills and knowledge are acquired, it is paramount to include return demonstrations by the learner (Urologic Nursing, 2006). It is important for the teachers to observe the learned skills in the learner, and for the learner to experience the progress in their understanding, and application of the education. Seeing progress and realizing a tangible movement transport in the learning process may increase the learners motivation to learn even more. put off 1. Characteristics of Adult Learners * Autonomous and self- directed.* lay in a foundation of experiences and knowledge * Goal oriented * Relevancy oriented * Practical * Need to be surfacen respect Characteristics of Adult Learners ascendant Knowles, 1970 Table 2. stocks of Motivation for Adult Learning * Social Relationships * External Expectations * Social well-being * Personal Advancement * Escape/Simulation * Cognitive Interest Source Lieb, 1991 Learning styles refers to the consistent way in which a learner responds to or interacts with stimuli in the learning context (Robert Loo, 2002).Learning styles are related to cognitive styles of the learners personality, temperament, and motivation. According to Riding and Cheema (1991) the concept of learning styles wait to emerge in the 1970s as a replacement for the cognitive styles. Activity in the learning styles field has been so strong that some 21 different perplexs have been developed (Curry, 1983). Kolbs Experimental Learning Model ( elmwood) is one of the most popular and utilized learning cases today. ELM has attracted a wide audience as well as application.His model is founded on Jungs concept of types or styles through which the individual develops by victimisation higher level of integration and expression of non-dominant modes of dealing with the population (Kolb, 1994). Experience is formed into concepts that guide the choice of new experiences. Ko lbs model reflects two dimensions based on (a) perceiving , which involves concrete experience (feeling) and abstract preparation (thinking), and (b) processing, which involves active experimentation (doing) and reflective observation (watching) (Robert Loo, 2002).These two dimensions form the hobby four quadrants reflecting four learning styles accommodator, diverger, assimilator, and converger (Robert Loo, 2002). FIGURE 1. Kolbs Twodimensional Learning Model and Four Learning Styles Accommodator Diverger Converger Assimilator cover Experience Active Experimentation Reflective Observation Abstract expression Accommodators are described as hands on or catgut feelings, divergers deal best with concrete situations, assimilators understand a wide cuckold of information, and convergers are best at finding practical uses for ideas (Kolb, 1994).As more adults are participating in learning activities, adults are beginning to desire ways to improve their learning experiences. One way in which adult learners are achieving these goals is to familiarize themselves with their individual learning styles. How do adult learners identify their personal learning style? Many have been interested in how one learns. Even before the 1970s, scholars have known that matching teaching styles and learning styles would result in improved grades, which logically reflect greater learning. Understanding ones learning style can lead to successful learning for all learners.Over the past fifty years researchers have learned a great deal about learning styles and how to identify them. Adult learners can improve test scores and increase content knowledge by identifying styles. Dunn and Dunn (1992) demonstrate that when students are taught using their preferred learning styles, the show increased academic achievement and improved attitudes toward instruction than when they are taught using their non-preferred style (Joseph Pitts, 2009). The problem has been that instruments are often tim e consuming in administering, scoring, and implementing.Research on learning and cognitive styles evolved from psychological research on individual differences (Curry, 1987). In the process, scholars began to develop inventories and other measures to identify the learning styles they observed (Joseph Pitts, 2009). In the early 90s more than thirty print instruments that assess the dimensions of learning styles were in use. In order for adult learners to identify their learning style they most use a valid learning style inventory. There is a multitude of learning inventories. Many are composed of self-report rank ordered questions.For example, Curry (1987) organized a three-layer system composed of twenty one learning styles. The first level focuses on learning behavior, the second level centers on information-processing dimensions, and the third presents instructional preferences. gameboard 1. Currys Classification System of Learning Styles Instruments Level motive Instrument 1. Instructional and environmental preferences Canfield and LaffertyDunn, Dunn, and PriceFriedman and Stricter Learning Styles InventoryLeaning Style InventoryInstructional Preferences 2.Information-processing preferences BiggsEndwise and RamsdenHuntKolb Study procedure QuestionnaireApproaches to StudyingParagraph Completion MethodLearning Styles Inventory 3. Personality-related preferences KaganMyersWitkin Matching Familiar Figures TestMyer-Briggs Type IndicatorEmbedded Figures Test Source Curry 1987 Dunn et al. (1992) classified individuals as analytic or global learners that analytical learners are more successful when information is presented step-by-step in a cumulative, sequential pattern that builds towards conceptual understanding (i. e. , a part-to-whole pattern of learning).These individuals prefer to learn in a quiet, well-illuminated, formal setting often have a strong emotional need to complete tasks like to learn alone or one-on-one with a teacher prefer passing struc tured assignments and rarely eat, drink, smoke, chew, or bite on objects while learning. orbiculate learners have the opposite set of characteristics, learning more easily when they cut across a concept first and then concentrate better with distractors such(prenominal) as sound, soft lighting, and informal seating arrangement and some form of intake (e. g. eating or drinking).They take frequent breaks by perusal and often work on several tasks simultaneously. Global learners prefer to work with their peers and structure tasks in their own way. In conclusion, many adults for different reasons are choosing to return to some form of educational activity. Some are motivated because of social relationships, personal advancement, or cognitive interest, but whatever the reasons, adults should be prepared for the journey. Adults can prepare by knowing the process of adult learning, identifying the types of learning styles, and identifying ones own style.Reference Page Londell D. capita l of Mississippi (2006). Revisiting Adult Learning Theory through the Lens of an Adult Learner. Harold Pashler, hold in McDaniel, Doug Rohrer, and Robert Bjork (2009). Learning Styles, Concepts and Evidence. University of California, San Diego, Washington University in St Louis, University of South Florida, and University of California, Las Angeles. Joseph Pitts (2009). Identifying and Using a teacher Friendly Learning-Styles Instrument. Sally Russell (2006). An Overview of Adult-Learning Processes. Urological Nursing.